These references are used throughout the encyclopedia. Whenever possible the primary source was provided.

Acevedo AM, Machedo C, Rivera LE, Wolff M, Kleinberg I (2005). The inhibitory effect of an arginine bicarbonate/calcium carbonate Cavistat-containing dentifrice on the development of dental caries in Venezuelan school children. J Clin Dent.16:63-70.

Afinsky, Dimitry (1955). Oral lesions in Niacin, Riboflavin, Pyridoxin, Folic Acid, and Pantothenic Acid deficiencies in Adult dogs. Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Path, 8:207-212.

Ai, S., Ishikawa, T., and Seino, A. (1965). “Ohaguro” traditional tooth staining custom in Japan. International Dental Journal 15, 426-441.

Albrectsson, T, Brånemark PI, Hansson HA, Lindström J (1981). Osseointegrated Titanium Implants. Requirements for ensuring a Long-lasting, Direct Bone to-Implant Anchorage in Man. Acta Orthop Scand. 52(2):155-70. doi: 10.3109/17453678108991776. (Osseointegration)

Align Technology Inc (2000). Systems and methods for positioning teeth. US Patent 6783360B2.; related to: U.S. Pat. No. 5,975,893 entitled “Method and system for incrementally moving teeth,” issued to Chishti et al. on Nov. 2, 1999; U.S. Pat. No. 6,406,292; and Ser. No. 09/556,022, entitled “System and Method for Determining Final Position of Teeth,” filed Apr. 20, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,457,972.

Albucasis (al-Zahrāwī, Abū ʻl-Qāsim) (1532). Chirurgicorum Libri Tres. Strassbourg,  p.173-175 – description of dental forceps and surgical instruments; p.177 – use of silver ligature to enhance loose teeth). This volume is combined with the work of Priscianus, Theodorus and Neuenra, Hermann von (1532). Rerum Medicarum Libri Quator. Argent Apud Ioannem Schottum.; p.172-176 – description of patient’s position, dental forceps, and extraction instruments; p.177 – use of silver ligature to enhance loose teeth). This volume is combined with the work of Priscianus, Theodorus and Neuenra, Hermann von (1532). Rerum Medicarum Libri Quator. Argent Apud Ioannem Schottum. (a good description of the book is found at: (sedere infirmum inter manus tuas et caput eius in sinu tuo et rade molam et dentem. Translated: sit the patient between your hands and the patient’s head in your lap, and loosen up the gum around the tooth). 

Albucasis (b). (1778). De chirurgia. Tomus primus. Cura Johanneis Channing, natu et civitate Londonensis. Oxonii, 1778, p.186. (Illustration of extraction forceps for root tips.)

Alt, Kurt W. and Pichler, Sandra L (1998). Artificial Modifications of Human Teeth. In: Dental Anthropology. Fundamentals, Limits and Prospects. Alt, Kurt W. Rösing, Frederich W., Teschler-Nicola, M eds. Springer Wien New York. p. 387-415. (Intentional Dental Modifications, dental mutilations jade decoration of upper incisors in the Tlaxala skull, Mexico 500-900 A.D., p.405).

Andresen, Viggo. (1936). The Norwegian system of functional gnatho-orthopedics. Acta Gnathol., 1:5-36. (The Norwegian System of Orthodontics)

Angle, Edward H. (1887) (a).Notes on orthodontia with a new system of regulation and retention. The Ohio Journal of Dental Science, VII(10):457-464. (

Angle, E.H. (1899). Classification of malocclusion. Dent. Cosmos 41:248-264, 350-357.

Angle, Edward Hartley (1928). The latest and best in orthodontic mechanism. Dental Cosmos, 70(12):1143-1158. (edgewise arch introduction).

Armitage, Gary C. (2020). A brief history of periodontics in the United States of America: Pioneers and thought-leaders of the past, and current challenges. Periodontology 2000. 82:12-25. (History of periodontics)

Artzneybuch (Anonymous) (1546). Artzneybuch. Edited by Melchior Sachse and Introduced by Tarquinius Ocyorus (alias Schellenberg)

Askitopoulou, Helen, Nyktari, Vasileia, Papaioannou, Alexandra et al. (2017). The origins of oral medicine in the Hippocratic collected works. J. Oral Med Path. 46:689-694. 

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (1556).  Avicennae Medicorum Arabum principis Liber Canonis Basilae: Apud Ioanes Hervagios, p. 461. Caries lesion – called corosione dentium.  Relies on Galen in its approach.(

Axelsson P, Lindhe J. (1981) (a). Effect of controlled oral hygiene procedures on caries and periodontal disease in adults – results after 6-years. J Clin Periodontol 8:239-48. 

Axelsson P,Lindhe J, Nyström B. (1991) (b). On the prevention of caries and periodontal disease. Results of a 15-year longitudinal study in adults. J Clin Periodontol 13:182-9.

Axelsson P, Nyström B,Lindhe J. (2004) (c). The long term effect of a plaque control program on tooth mortality, caries and periodontal disease in adults: Results after 30 years of maintenance. J Clin Periodontol 31:740-57.

Badcock, William (1677). A touchstone for gold and silverwares or A manual for goldsmiths. John Bellinger, London. p. 1 (instruments and goldsmith’s workshop illustration).

Baekeland, Leo H. (1909). Method of Making Insoluble Products of Phenol and Formaldehyde. US Patent Office. Patent # 942699, Dec. 7, 1909.

Bailit, Howard L and Farmicola, Allan J (2017). Advancing Dental Education in the 21st Century. J. Dent. Edu. 1004-1007.

Balkville FH (1880). Partial vulcanite uppers. In: Mechanical Dentistry in Gold and Vulcanite. Chapter V, p.70. (first mention of a connecting bar for a partial upper denture).

Banks F, Trope M (2004). Revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis new treatment protocol? J Endod. 30:196-200. (First suggestion for pulp regeneration)

Bauer, Walter (1930). Process of producing acrylic acid esters. US Patent Office, Patent # US1890277A, Dec 6, 1932.

Baum, B.J., Fox, P.C. and Tabak, L.A. (1997) Columbia, Salivary Research, plus Irwin Mandel Equal a Special Combination for Dentistry. J. Dent. Res. 76 (2) p.631-633. DOI: 10.1177/00220345970760020201

Becker, Curtis M., Kaiser, David A. and Goldfogel, Marvin (1994). Evolution of Removable Partial Denture Design. J Prosthodontics, 3(3): 158-166.

Becker, Marshall J. (1997). Early dental appliances in the Eastern Mediterranean. Berytus 42:71-102. (Egyptian, Greek, and Roman wiring of loose mandibular teeth).

Becker, Marshall J. (2002) Etruscan female tooth evulsion: gold dental appliances as ornaments. In: Practices, Practitioners, and Patients: New Approaches to Medical Archeology and Anthropology. Gillian Carr and Patricia Baker Eds. Oxford: Oxbow Books. p.236-257.

Becker, M. J. (2014). Dentistry in Ancient Rome: Direct Evidence for Extractions Based on the Teeth from Excavations at the Temple of Castor and Pollux in the Roman Forum. International Journal of Anthropology, 29(4), 209-226. Retrieved from;  (×0/ (extractions in Roman Forum)

Becker, Marshall J., and Turfa, Jean MacIntosh (2017). The Etruscans and the History of Dentistry. The Golden Smile Through the Ages. Taylor and Francis (General reference for Etruscan dental appliances).

Behçet H. (1937). Über rezidivierende, Aphhöse, durch ein Virus verursachte Geschwüre am Munde, am Auge und an Genitalien. Dermatol. Wochenschr. 105:1152–1157.

Bell, Sir Charles (1825). Exposition of the Natural System of the Nerves of the Human Body, Philadelphia, Carey, H.C. & Lea I. 1825, p. 154.

Bell, Thomas (1829). The anatomy, physiology and diseases of the teeth. S. Highley, London, p. 93-103. (Improved arch bar and a gold crown on permanent molars to move vestibularly malpositioned teeth.

Bennett, H.D. (1869).Partial Sets of Teeth Without Plate, Clasp, or Pivot. Dental Cosmos,11(10): 509-510. (First description of a bridge done by B.J. Bing in Paris).

Bennion, Elisabeth (1986). Antique Dental Instruments. Sotheby’s Publications. p.137 (General reference)

Berdmore, Thomas (1768). – A treatise on the disorders and deformities of the teeth and gums, p.259.

Bernardini, Federico; Tuniz, Claudio; Coppa, Alfredo., et al. (2012). Beeswax as dental filling on a neolithic human teeth. PLOS ONE 7(9):e44904.  doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044904.

Bhishagratna, Kaviraj Kunja Lal, Editor, and translator. (1907). An English Translation of the Sushrata Samhita Based on Original Sanskrit Text. Vol I. Sutrasthanam, Introduction. Calcutta, p.XVIII.

Bhishagratna, Kinjalal (1911). An English Translation of the Sushruta Samhita, Vol 2. p.102 and p. 464 (Definition of gingivitis – paridara – and its treatment).

Bien SM (1967). Why Demosthenes Mouthed Pebbles? Lancet, 2(7526):1152. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(67)90664. (Demosthenes used pebbles as an obturator for his cleft palate)

Bird, Peter D (1981). The development of dental radiology. Brit. Dent. J. 151:28-31.

Bond, Thomas Emerson (1851). A practical treatise on dental medicine as connected with the study of dental surgery. Lindsey and Blakiston, Philadelphia. (first oral medicine and pathology text).

Birk, Rukinder, K (2006). The history of pain management. p.38. The History of Anesthesia Society Proceedings, vol 36: p. 37-45.

Black, Greene Vardiman (1908). A Work on Operative Dentistry, Chicago, Vol 2. p.105-210.

Black, Greene Vardiman and McKay, S. Frederick (1916) Mottled Teeth: An Endemic Developmental Imperfection of the Enamel of the Teeth Heretofore Unknown in the Literature of Dentistry. 58(2):129-156.

Blume, Gustav (1850). Uber der Einsetzen der Stiftzahne. Der Zahnarzt, Berlin. 5:129-146. (Enlarging root canals with reamers and placing Dowelpin with gold foil).

Bobbio, Amadeo (1973). Maya, the first authentic alloplastic, endosseous dental implant. A refinement of a priority. Rev Assoc Paul Cir Dent. 27(1):27–36. 

Bogue E.A. (1872). Bleaching teeth. Dental Cosmos XIV(1):1-3. (First, to use concentrated oxalic acid directly into the pulp chamber 3-6 minutes, a method adopted by J.A. Chapple and mentioned in Hints and Inquiries in Dental Cosmos: 19,1877, a reference incorrectly identified as the first. Chapple acknowledges Bogue’s method).

Bonain, A. (1899). Sur un nouveau procede d’anesthesie locale pour operer sur la membrane et la caisse du tympan. Bulletin et Mémoires de la Société Française d’otologie, de laryngologie et de Rhinologie, 14:559-562.

Bonain, A. (1907). Note au sujet de l’anesthesique local employé en oto-rhino-laryngologie sous la denomination “Lequide de Bonain.”.  Ann Malad Oreil Laryngol. (33):216- 217.

Bonwill, William A.G. (1899). Scientific articulation of the human teeth as founded on geometrical, mathematical, and mechanical laws. Dent. Items. Int. 21, 617-636 and 873-880. (new balanced articulator), also in Hoffmann-Axthelm 1981, p. 270.

Bonwill  W.G.A. (1899). New methods of‘ clasping artificial dentures to human teeth without injury versus immovable bridges. Dent Items of Interest; p.656-670. (new design of clasps with occlusal rest.)

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Botot, E.F. Julien (1770). Observationes, sur la suppuration des gencives. Journal de Medicine, chirurgie, pharmacie. Vol 32, January, p 356-372. [archiveorg s3id13654830 width=560 height=384 frameborder=0 webkitallowfullscreen=true mozallowfullscreen=true]

Botot, E.F. Julien (1783) Moyens sur pour conserves des dents. pp.30.

Bourdet, Etienne (1757) Recherché et observations sur toutes les parties de l’art du dentiste. Jean Thomas Herrisant, Paris.  

Vol I, p. 19. (First suggestion to remove bicuspids to make room for crowded teeth and use a full arch metal strip to pull individual malpositioned teeth. It is an extension of Fauchard’s idea.)

Vol I. p 288. 1757. – for cautery of the gingiva (gingivectomy) in case of severe periodontitis.

Vol 2, p 272, Figure V. Preparing complete dentures.

Bourdet, Etienne (1782). Soins facials pour la proprete de la bouche et pour la conservation des dents. F.J Desoer, Liege. pp.90. 

Bourdet, Etienne (1787). Recherché et observations sur toutes les parties de l’art du dentiste. Vol II, p.6. (Removal of first lower bicuspid for anterior crowding.).

Brandenburg, Frederick William of (1725). Königlich Preußisches und Churfürstl. Brandenburgisches Medicinal-Edikt und Verordnung. 1725. pp. 99. (Edict of 1725 for regulation of dental practice in Prussia).

Braun, Heinrich Frederich Wilhelm (1904). Cocaine und Adrenalin (Suprarenin). Berlin, H. Kornfeld, 32pp. (Using adrenalin for local anesthetic to prolong its action). 

Breasted, James Henry (1922). The Edwin Smith Papyrus. The New York Historical Society Quarterly Bulletin VI (1), April 1922, 5-31. (description of the Edwin Smith papyrus).

Breasted, James Henry (1930). The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus. 2 vol. Chicago University Press, Chicago. p. 230 (First mention of suture, hieroglyph “ydr” = means, to sew, to stitch.). Case #10, p.230)

Broadbent, B.Holly. (1931). A new X-ray technique and its application to orthodontia. Angle Orthodontist, 1, 45-66.

Brown, Solyman (1841). Essay on the importance of regulating the teeth of children. New York. p.11

Brown, Solyman (1842). Of the insertion of entire sets of artificial teeth, both upper and lower, on plates of gold, without clasps or springs. American Journal of Dental Science, Volume II(4):265-279.

Bryan, Cyril Phillips (1930). Ancient Egyptian Medicine – The Papyrus Ebers (Translated from the German by Bryan, Cyril Phillips). Chicago, Ares Publishers Inc., p.112 (

Bryan, Cyril P. (1931). The Papyrus Ebers. New York, Appleton, and Co., pp. 220.

Buchner, Eberhard (1922). Ärzte und Kurpfuscher. Munchen 1922. pp. 329 (there were 4 dentists in Vienna in 1783)

Buckley, John, Peter (1905). The Chemistry of Pulp Decomposition. Dental Cosmos, 47:223-229.

Budge, E. A. Wallis (1913). The Book of Medicines” or Syrian Anatomy, Pathology and Therapeutics (Anonymous); Vol II. p.192. translated by Budge, E. A. Wallis (Ernest Alfred Wallis), Sir, 1857-1934.

Bunon, Robert (1743). Essay sur les maladies des dents. Paris: Briasson Chaubert; De Hansy. p.237.

Buonocore, M.G. (1955). A simple method of increasing the adhesion of acrylic filling materials to enamel surfaces. J Dent Res. 1955;34(6):849–853. doi:10.1177/00220345550340060801

Bunting Russel (1928). The relationship of Bacillus acidophilus to dental caries. JADA 15, 1230-33.

Burnet, Thomas (1697) (a). Thesaurus medicinæ practicæ. Ex præstantissimorum medicorum observationibus … summâ diligentiâ collectus … Subsectio tertia. Pro Dentium Dolores, p.274-275. J. Ant. Chouet & Davidis Ritteri, Geneva.  [the same page, 274 contains multiple recipes for toothache from multiple authors: (a). recipe by Bartholomeo Montagnana, (b). for Peter Foreest for ear infusion with castor oil. The original Latin text is Auri instillari justi castorei exiguum cum nardo in oleo coctum; (c) for Ambroise Pare – use of egg yolk, turpentine oil, and camphor. The original Latin text is: Nil præstantius oleo terebiathinæ chimico cum pulvere Camphoræ; cujus etiam oleum chimicè paratum ett efficacissimum. Item vitellum ovi assi applicatum prodest, ut et theriaca illita. (d). p. 275. Martin Rulandus. The original Latin text is: Guttas aliquot olei Camphoræ gossipio parvo excipio, ac dentis cavernæ applicari jubeo. Martinus Rulandus Curationum empiricarum et historicarum Centuria.], (e). p. 275. Roderick Fonseca.  The original Latin text is: Omnium præstantissimum est oleum buxi, quod tanquam incantamen tum, illicò dolores sedat, ad miraculum usque; et pro maximo secreto habetur, ita ut hoc solo ditari aliquis possit, in foramen dentis gutta una vel altera injiciatur: illicò dolorem tollit; ideo nihil præstantius repetiri potest: Aliud remedium ad hoc sit ex oleo Camphoræ, cujus gutta si intra foveam dentis instilletur, mirisieè dolores fedabit. Recipe of Rodericus (Rodrigo da) A Fonseca, 1619.  (e). p. 275.

Burnet, Thomas (1697) (b). Thesaurus medicinæ practicæ. Ex præstantissimorum medicorum observationibus … summâ diligentiâ collectus … Subsectio prima. Pro Dentium dealbandis. J. Ant. Chouet & Davidis Ritteri, Geneva.  (p.273, Quotes Roderick Fonseca, for a recipe for tooth whitening).  The original Latin text is Fol. rosmar. 1 siccentur, in pulverem redigantur, adde panis albi in pulverem combusti ʒ ij. corall. rubr. ʒi. Alabastr. M.F. Pulvis. Quo quotidie dentes fricentur, et est optimum medicamentum. Post frictionem os aqua rosmar. colluatur (Recipe of Rodericus (Rodrigo da) A Fonseca, 1619, Tom I, Consult 46). The Latin text without abbreviations is Folia rosmarini 1-ounce siccentur, in pulverem redigantur, adde panis albi in pulverem combusti 1 drachm ij. corallus rubrum 1 drachm Alabaster ½ drachm. Misce Fiat Pulvis. Quo quotidie dentes fricentur, et est optimum medicamentum. Post frictionem os aqua rosmar. colluatur.  Translation and with current units of measurements:  One oz (28.3 g) of dried rosemary leaves reduced into powder, 4 g of white bread, 4 g of red corral and 2 g of alabaster are added and heated. Mix it into a powder. Use it as a dentifrice. Wash it out with a rosemary solution. 

Buxton, DW. (1892). Anaesthetics; their uses and administration, Ch. 1. 2nd Ed. London: HK Lewis. (Romans used marble powder and vinegar to generate carbon dioxide).

Caelius, Aurelianus (1709). De morbis acutis et chronicis (On acute and chronic diseases). Amsterdam, Ex Officina Wetsteniana. p. 370, Volume II, Chapter IV. De dolore dentium

Cai, J, Zhang, Y, Liu, P, Chen, S, Wu, X, Sun, Y, Li, A, Huang, K, Luo, R, Wang, Let al. (2013). Generation of tooth-like structures from integration-free human urine-induced pluripotent stem cells. Cell Regen (Lond). 2(1):6.

Calamia JR. (1985). Etched porcelain veneers: The current state of the art. Quintessence Int;16:5–12. (Porcelain veneers bonding)

Carabelli, Georg (1842). Anatomie des Mundes / von Georg Carabelli (First systematization of occlusion).

Carabeli, Georg Edlen von  Lunkaszprie (1842). Systematisches Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde. Vol II. Anatomie des Mundes,  p.126-127. Wien. (First systematic classification of occlusions).

Celsus, Aulus Cornelius (1687). De Medicina. Lib VII, Cap XII.  Apud Joannem Wolters, Amstlaedami. p. 444. (Treatment of caries: scraping the carious lesion from the cavity and filling the tooth with a mixture of rose leaves, nutgalls, and myrrh. In Latin: Dens autem scaber, qua parte niger est, radendus est, illinendusque rosae flore contrito, qui gallae quarta pars et altera myrrhae sit adjecta. (Celsus (3), De Medicina, Lib VII, Chapter 12, p. 444, 

Celsus, Cornelius Aurelius (1688). De Medicina Libri Octo, Apud Joannem Wolters, Amstelædami, Chapter X, pp. 139, §10. ( Notæ vero inflammationis sunt quatuor, rubor & tumor, cum calore et dolore – Signs of inflammation are four, redness and swelling with warmness and pain. (Removal of deciduous teeth is necessary, and pushing day-by-day the permanent tooth into position). ( The Latin text on page 445, chapter 12, Book VII, line 3: Si quando etiam in pueris ante dens nascitur, quam prior excidat, is, cadere debuit, circumradendus et evellendus ets; is qui natus est in locum prioris, quotidie digito adurgendus, donec ad justam magnitudinem perveniat. Translated based on Guerini, 1921: When a permanent tooth appears before the fall of the milk tooth, it is necessary to dissect the gum all around the latter and extract it; the other tooth must then be pushed with the finger, day by day, toward the place that was occupied by the one extracted; and this is to be  done until it has firmly reached its right position”. (

Chauliac, Guy de (1585). Chirurgia Magna Guidonis, Lugduni), edited by Laurentio Joubert, p.656. (mirror described in this edition, speculum oris – see image).


Cheng B, Hung CT, Chiu W (2002). Herbal medicine and anesthesia. Hong Kong Med. J. 8(2):123-130. (Hua Tao uses wine and mefaisan in the 3d c. before surgery to knock patients unconscious).

Chernin, D. and Shklar G. (2003). Levi Spear Parmly: father of dental hygiene and children’s dentistry in America. J Hist Dent. Mar;51(1):15-8.

Chernin, D. (2009). The beginnings of professional dental institutions in 19th century America. J. Hist. Dent. 57(1):3-14.

Chernin, D and Shklar G. (2003). Levi Spear Parmly: father of dental hygiene and children’s dentistry in America. J Hist Dent. 2003 Mar;51(1):15-8.

Shklar, G. and Chernin, D. (2002). Eleazar Parmly: Clinician, Educator, Poet. J. Hist. Dent. 51(2):51-55

Chernin, D. (2009). The evolution of the American Dentist. Part I-Amalgamation: 1776-1840. J. Hist. Dent. 57(2):45-67.

Cho, YD, Kim, KH, Ryoo, HM, Lee, YM, Ku, Y, Seol, YJ. (2019). Recent advances of useful cell sources in the periodontal regeneration. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 14(1):3–8.

Christen, AG, Christen, JA.  (2003). A historical glimpse of toothpick use: etiquette, oral and medical conditions. J Hist. Dent. Vol. 51:2, 61.

Chu Shi-T’ao (1958). Using Amalgam as filling material in dentistry in ancient China. China Med. J. (76):553-5.

Clarke J. Killian (1924). On the bacterial factor in the etiology of dental caries. Brit J Exp Pathol 5:141–147. (Strep mutant isolated).

Clawson, MD (1933). A Phoenician dental appliance of the 5th Century B.C. Transactions of the American Dental Society of Europe: 142-160. (wire ligature of mobile lower incisors). 

Cooke, Brian E.D. (1981). History of Oral Medicine. Brit. Dent J. 151:11-13. (Erasmus Wilson, dermatologist, connected systemic and oral symptoms in Oral Medicine).

Corbett M. E. and Moore W. J. (1976) The distribution of dental caries in ancient British populations. IV. The 19th Century. Caries Res. 10, 401.  (caries rates in England V-XiXc.)

Coppa A, Bandioli L, Cucina A, Frayer DW, Jarrige C, Jarrige JF, et al. (2006). Paleontology: Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry.  Nature, 440:755-6. doi:10.1038/440755a.

Cordi, Valerii (pseud. V. Eberwein) (1561). De artificiosis extractionibus Liber. In: In hoc volumine continentur Valerii Cordi Simesusij Annotationes in Pedacii Dioscoridis Anazarbei De medica materia libros V. p.225-229. (link:

[archiveorg mobot31753000817848 width=560 height=384 frameborder=0 webkitallowfullscreen=true mozallowfullscreen=true]  (on page 229 is the description of ether synthesis in 1540 from sulfuric acid (oleum vitriol) and ethyl alcohol (vini ardentis acerrimi – certified wine spirit (pure alcohol). The Latin text on page 229 states: p 229.  Ex Austero quomodo Dulce fiat. Antea dictum est austerum vitrioli oleum, duplici constare mixtura, videlicet multo alumine et pauce sulphure. Quare cu ex austero oleo dulce extrahitur nihil aliud sit, quam quod sulphur ab alumine segregatur. Est itaqæ dulce vitrioli oleum nihil aliud, quom oleum sulphuris aut ipsum sulphur in liquidam substantiam redactum. Which liberally translates: How tasteless is turned into sweet. At the start the oil of vitriol consists of a mixture of two, alum and a little sulfur. The sweet (component) is extracted from the tasteless oil; therefore, the outcome is non-other than the sulfur separated from the alum.

Croce, Giovanni Andrea dela (1573). Chirurgiæ Ioannis Andreæ a Cruce Veneti Medici. Apud Iordanum Zilettum, Venetiis, p. 41 (string drills illustrated for the first time).

Croce, Giovanni, A. dela (b) (1596). Chirurgiae vniuersalis opus absolutum. Ioannis Andreae à Cruce … In quo quorumcunque affectuum vniuerso corpori humano obuenientium, & ad chirurgi curam spectantium, notio, praedictio, atque curatio perspicua methodo narrantur, … Addita insuper est Officina chirurgica, in qua nempe instrumenta omnia aliaque chirurgico conuenientia suis figuris delineata expressaque cernuntur. Italy: apud Robertum Meiettum. (string drill illustration)

Croll, T.P. and Swanson, B.Z. (2000) 19th Century Dentistry Advertising Trade Cards: No 4. J. Hist. Dent. 48 (1):16. (Toothpaste advertising)

Crossland, Maurice (2004). The Officiers de Santé of the French Revolution: A Case Study in the Changing Language of Medicine. Med History. 48(2): 229–244. (1794 – Office de Sante, unification of physicians and surgeons in France).

Crystal, Y.O. and Nidereman, R. (2019). Evidence-Based Dentistry Update on Silver Diamine Fluoride. Dent Clin North Am. 63(1):45-68.

Czarnetzki, A and Ehrhardt S. (1990). Re-dating the Chinese Amalgam-filling of teeth in Europe. Int. J. Anthropology, 5(4): 325-332. (Amalgam in the molar of Princess Anna Ursual of Brunswick and Luneburg, 1601).

Dagen, Georges (1926). Documents pour servir a l’histoire de l’art dentaire en France. Paris. pp.381.

Dahl JE, Pallesen U. (2003). Tooth bleaching—a critical review of the biological aspects. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 14(4):292-304 (review of the field) 

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Dammaschke T. (2008)  The history of direct pulp capping. J Hist Dent. 2008 Spring;56(1):9-23.

d’Arcet, Jean (1775). Experience: Sur quelques alliages metalliques qui ont la propriete de se ramollier, et meme de fondre et de couler dans l’eau bouillante. J. Medicine, Chirurgie, Pharmacie. XLIII: 552-561.

d’Arcoli, Giovanni (1560). Practica Ioannis Arculani Veronensis. De Dolore Dentium, Cap 48., p.140. Venetiis Valgrisi. The Latin text is: Regimen autem implendo dente corrossum est […] sed ubi non fuerit multus recessus a mediocritate impleautr cum foliis auri. (Liberally translated: This is how one fills a carious tooth…[…] if the carious lesion is moderate, fill it with gold foil).

Dean, Trendley H. (1938). Endemic fluorosis and its relation to dental caries. Pub. Health Reports 53:1443-52.

de Chauliac, Guy (1584). Annotations de Laurent Joubert sur toute la chirurgie de  M. Guy de Chauliac.

de Chemant, Dubois Nicolas (1797). A dissertation on artificial teeth in general. pp.94.

de Chemant, Dubois Nicolas (1798). Sur les avantages des nouvelles dents et rateliers artificiels, incorruptibles et sans odeur: inventés par M. Dubois de Chémant.

Delabarre, Christoph Francois (1815). Odontologie; ou, Observations sur les dents humaines, (first orthodontic appliance).

Delabarre, Christophe-Francois (1819). Traite, de la seconde dentition, et method naturelle de la diriger. Paris. (Contraindicates early removal of deciduous teeth and suggests space maintainer).

Delabarre, Christoph Francois (1820). Traite de la partie mecanique de l’art du chirurgien-dentiste, Paris. Fig. 103-106; p.159 (impression trays); (New design of a mechanical obturator to better fit the soft palate, fig 1).

Delabarre, Antoine Francois Adolph (1848). De la gutta-percha et de son application aux dentures artificielles. (use of gutta-percha as denture base).

Delmond, Augustin (1824). Mémoire sur un nouveau procédé pour détruire le cordon dentaire de six dents antérieures, et éviter leur extraction; précédé de quelques réflexions critiques sur l’opinion de M. Lemaire, qui soutient que les dents sont des corps inorganisés et nullement soumis à l’empire de la vie animale. Paris, 34 p. – A Treatise upon a New Method of destroying the Dental Pulp, Paris.) ( This is a very rare, self-published pamphlet. The method Delmond uses is also described in detail in Antoine Malagou Desirabode (1847). Complete Elements of the Science and Art of the Dentist, 2d. Ed. p. 177. link:  Additionally listed in: Illinois State Dental Society (1890). The Transactions of the Illinois State Dental Society at the Twenty sixth Annual Meeting, Volume 26, page 115). One of the most specious is the excision and extraction of the dental ganglion ; for this operation a small drill is used, which is placed in the cavity of the fang, and, giving the drill a few rotary motions, it is withdrawn with the dental pulp attached.Delmond has described, with care and much detail, this operation. If we have not at hand the proper instrument for this operation, a substitute might be made of iron or platina wire, resembling a single /acies, and which can be readily introduced into the canal of the tooth. By giving the wire a shape resembling a cork-screw, we can with it readily withdraw the dental pulp.“

Desirabode, Malagou-Antoine (1843). Nouveaux elements complets de la science et de l’art du dentiste. 2 vol.  (“Prothèse ou mechanique dentaire”, p. 545, vol II, chapter II. (vol I First to mention prevention of dental caries due to fluoride, p.409. Chapter II, p. 545. (functional impression taking)

de Vigo, Ioannis (1561). Practica Ioanni Vigo. De doloribus dentium. Cap. VI, p. 533. Lugdunum. Apud Hæredes Iacobi Iuntæ, 1561. The full description of cleaning a cavity and placing a gold foil restoration in Giovanni da Vigo (1514 and later editions and Zene Artzney, 1530): Eius aute remotio perficitur eu trapano, lima, scalpo, aut alio instrumento apto ad dentium putrefactionem seu corrosionem delendam: deinde pro conservatione dentis foramen auri foliis impleatur. However once the removal is accomplished with drills, files, and scrapers, one has to remove the complete destruction of the tooth putrefaction with any instrument that fits the teeth and ultimately preserves the tooth and fills the cavity with gold foil.

Die Zene Arznei 1530 [Artzney Buchlein wider allerlei kranckheyten und gebrechen der tzeen, getzogen auß dem Galeno Avicenna Mesue Cornelio Celso und andern mehr der Artzney doctorn seher nützlich tzu lesen].

Diodorus Siculus (1939). The Library of History. Loeb Classical Library 1939, Book 5. (Gargling with urine, use of toothpick).*.html#note42

Dionysius Duvallius (1590). Epigrammata et poematia vetera, edited Pierre Pithou, p.134.  (for mastic and myrrh for halitosis) (The volume includes Serennus Sammonicus’s  Liber Medicinalis under title De medicina praecepta saluberima, (p.126-164).

Discoroides, Pedanius et Cornarius, Janus (1557). Pedaci Discoridae Anazarbensis de Materia Medica Libri V.  Basilae. p 551-552.(mandrake for pain).

Desirabode, Malagou-Antoine (1843). Nouveaux elements complets de la science et de l’art du dentiste. p.409

Dubois-Foucou, & Deschamps (1814). Un nouvel instrument presente par M. Catalan fils, pour remedier a la difformite connue sous le nom Menton de Galoche. Journal General de Medecine, de Chirurgie et du Pharmacie, Vol 49;402-405.

Dwinelle, WH (1850). Proceedings of Ninth Annual Meeting of the American Society of Dental Surgeons, Saratoga, August 1848. Discussion on bleaching dead teeth.  Am. J. of Dental Science. 1(1):104, 57-61. (First use of chlorinated lime and sodium chloride as a bleaching agent)

Editorial etc. (1880). The Death of Josiah Bacon. Am. J. Dental Science, Vol. 13  p.40-45.

Einhorn, A.  Fiedler, K.  Ladisch, C.  et al. (1909). Ueber p‐Aminobenzoësäurealkaminester. Justus Liebig’s Annalen der Chemie. 371 (2):142-161. (Synthesis of procaine-novocaine). Alfred Einhorn, Höchst Ag, U.S. Patent 812,554, DE 179627, DE 194748.

Elsholtius, Johann Sigismund (1667). Clysmatica nova: sive ratio, qua in venam sectam medicamenta immitti possint. Coloniae Brandenburgicae (Berlin). (first use of a syringe (Figure II, p. 21, Infusio simplex in Homine), describes transfusion, Figure IV)

E.T. (1850). Article III. Filling Teeth after the Pulp-Cavity has become Exposed. (Signed E.T.) -, Am J Dental Science, Vol 1, #1, New Series, October., p. 12-16. In 1831, the author (E.T.) witnessed Edward Hudson successfully perform a root canal on a canine.

Eustachio B. (1563) Libellus de dentibus. Venice. (

Fabricius, Hyeronimus ab Acquapendent (1624). Hieronymi Fabricii ab Aquapendente, anatomices et chirurgiae. Frankfurt 1624.

Faggart, Harold L, Garretson, James E. (1945). Dr. James E Garretson and the First Hospital of Oral Surgery. Bull. Hist. Med. 17(4):360-367. (Garretson established the first specialty in 1869: oral surgery).

Fallopia, Gabriele (1562). Observationes anatomicae. Coloniæ, Apud hæredes Arnoldi Birckmanni p. 64-65.,

Farrar, John Nutting (1876). An inquiry into physiological and pathological changes in animal tissues in regulating teeth. Dental Cosmos, 18 (1):13-24.

Fauchard, Pierre. (1728) – Le Chirurgien Dentiste. Pierre-Jean Mariette, Paris. 1728. The most important dental work had seen three editions and several translations, including German in 1733 and English in 1946. 

Vol II., p.65, Figure (Planche) XIV – instruments to scrape the dental cavity.

Vol II. p. 171, using drills to enlarge a root canal 

Fauchard, Pierre (1746). Le Chirurgien Dentiste. 2d Ed, 

Vol I, p. 167 (using urine for gargling), 

Vol I. p.177. (Cause of gingival inflammation is neglect, local accumulation of calculus, 

Vol I. p.179 – connection of salivary stones and calculus. 

Vol II, p. 236 and 241, Planche XXX – use of a bow drill); 

Vol II, p.15 – Planche IX.  – Instruments for removal of calculus 

Vol II. p.182 – description of the salivary stone 

Vol II. p.236  description of the epoulis 

Vol II. p. 110 – using a Fauteuil for dental chair

Fauchard, Pierre (1746). Le Chirurgien Dentiste. 2d Ed., Chez Pierre-Jean Mariette, Paris. 

Vol II. p.252 – (flat block instead of carved occlusal surface). 

Vol II. p.254-258, Fig. 34-35, 

Vol II, p.79-80, Planche 15. (Dowel pins anchoring prosthesis and carved ivory crowns.; 

Vol II, p. 144-145, using forceps for extraction, including a detailed description, 

Vol II. p 144-45; elevators 

Vol II. p 143  

Vol II. p. 292-338, plate 38, p.305, and plate 39, p. 320.

Fay, Cyrus. (1825). No. XXII. Improved forceps for using dentists. Transactions of the Society, Instituted at London, for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, 44; pp.167-181.

Ficinius, Robert (1847). Uber das Ausfallen der Zahne und das Wesen der Karies. J. Chir. Augenhk. Berlin 36:1-43). (Observation of pathogens in fibers between the cement and gingiva, first to connect bacteria “animalcules” with periodontal destruction.

Field, Marylin J, Jeffcoat, Marjorie K., et al. (1995). Dental Education at the Crossroads: A report by the Institute of Medicine.

Fleischmann, Leo und Gottlieb, Bernhard. (1920). Beitrage zur Histologie und Pathogenese der Alveolar-pyorrhõe. Ossterr. Zschr. Stomat. 18:43-58. (Contributions on the histology and pathogens of pyorrhoe alveolaris).

Flemming, Alexander (1922). On a remarkable bacteriolytic element found in tissues and secretions. Proc. Royal Soc. B93:306-317, London.

Fletcher, Thomas (1878). Fletcher’s patent porcelain cement. Brit. J. Dent. Sc. 21:425-426. (Patent #3028).

Flexner, A. (1910). Medical education in the United States and Canada. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; 1910.

Florence, Anne M. (2006). Problem-solving in the 19th century. The History of Anesthesia Society, Vol 36:9-15. (163 death due to chloroform anesthesia in England).

Francke, Otto C. (1981) The Dental Turbine Handpiece: A Swedish Invention.  Bull. Hist. Dent. 29(2):P91-94.

Franco, Pierre (1561). Traité des hernies contenant une ample declaration de toutes leurs especes. 2d Edition, Thibauld Payan. p. 456-459. (First to describe cleft lip and palate and surgical treatment of the cleft lip. His first edition appeared in 1556 and was entitled: Petit traite contenant une des parties principalles de chirurgie, laquelle les chirurgie-herniers exercent.)

Fonseca, Frederici A, (1619). Consulationis Medicae. Venetiis, p. 165D  

(…Remedium sit ex oleo camphoræ, cuius guttae …intrafoveam dentis instillentur, mirifice solet sedare dolores – Drops of oil of camphor instilled into the opening of the cavity wonderfully allay the pain.) Apud Ioannem Guerilium, 1619.

Foreest, Peter van (1606). Observationum et curationum medicinalium ll. Liber XXXI (De fucis) Petrus Forestus. Ex Officina Palatiniana Raphelenghi 1606. 

p. 214-217 – Dentifrice recipes for tooth-whitening, maintenance, halitosis, cautions on the deleterius effect  of mercury on teeth (Nam argentum vivum non minus quam cætera dentibus infestum est). Mercury was used against syphilis prevalent since the return of Columbus from the New World in 1493. The Latin text states:- Dentifricio optimo utere: Rx. hyssopi, origani, menthe ana (8 gr.), alum. scibilis, cornu cerui, salis com. ana (4 gr.), excipiantur, et urantur in olla, donec in prunas reducantur: adde piperis, pumicis, pyrethri, mastyches, ana (2 gr.), myrrha odorata, cinamomi electi ana (1.3 gr.) terre subtilissime: cribra; et fervetur pulvis ad dentifricicum. In De dentibus dealbandis, et vittis corum totendis, p. 216.  Translation: Optimal dentifrice for use: Rx: hyssop, oregano, mentha, 8gr. each alum (potassium aluminium sulfate), scibilis? dear stag, table salt, 4 gr. each, extract and burn in a pot until reduced to ash; add peper, muice, chrysanthemum, mastic, 2 gr. each, sweet myrrh, select cinnamon, 1.3 gr. each terra subtilissima?: pass it through a sieve and boil it into a powder for dentifrice.

p.217 – recipe for pain – original text is: Piperis longis, pyrethri, staphisagria, subtilissime pulverizentur, melis, aqua vitae, misce supra cineres calidos, et applica dentibus.}

Foreest, Peter van (1623). Observationem et curationem medicinalium ac chirurgicarum, Opera Omnia, p. 110. Hartmanni Paltheni, Sumtibus Heredum, Francfurt, 1623. The first description of opening a pulp and placement of theriac into the canal. He refers to the procedure learned from his Master, Leonello Faventini de Victoriis (?-1520), born in Faenza and died in 1520. Many of his works were published posthumously. 

Fox, Joseph (1803). The natural history of the human teeth. London, p.68, Plate XII, Fig7.  (Orthodontic device uses two ivory gag-blocks at the end of a metal straightening strip attached to upper incisors. The gag block keeps teeth from occlusion, permitting incisors in an inverted bite to expand and move vestibular.) 

Fox, Joseph (1806). The history and treatment of the diseases of the teeth and gums, and the alveolar processes, with the operations they require. London. (using bismuth:lead: tin containing restorative material. p.88, (Called periodontal disease, “absorption of the gums”).

Francis, CE. (1872). Report of the (newly appointed) Committee on Dental Education. In: Transactions of the American Dental Association, Wabash Steam Printing House. p. 111.

Frank, Johann (1897). Argentum nitricum in der Zahnheilkunde. Oester.-Ungar Vierteljahrsschrift fur Zahnheilkunde, 13:364-370. (first use of Silver nitrate as a prophylactic agent on intact enamel against caries).

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Franklin BW. (1861). Plaster impressions and other things. Vulcanite. 1:155. (double impression, preliminary wax and plaster, final).

Gall, Joseph (1834). Populäre Anleitung über die wichtigsten Gegenstände der Zahnheilkunde für Aerzte, Wund-und angehende Zahnärzte. (using partial denture clasps).

Gao, S. S., Zhao, I. S., Hiraishi, N., et al. (2016). Clinical Trials of Silver Diamine Fluoride in Arresting Caries among Children: A Systematic Review. JDR Clinical & Translational Research1(3), 201–210.

Garangeot, Rene Jacques Croissant de (1727). Nouveau traité des instrumens de chirurgie les plus utiles et de plusieurs nouvelles machines propres pour les maladies des os. Chez Guillome Cavalier Publ., Paris. p 380.; p.42. (The first time a dental probe (“sonde”) is depicted, TII. 42. (

Gardette, Emile B. (1851). Biographical Notice of the Late Dr. James Gardette, Surgeon Dentist of Philadelphia. Am J Dent Sci. 1851 Apr;1(3):375-382. (on the first use of atmospheric pressure for upper denture by James Gardette).

Gariot, Jean Baptiste (1805).Traité des maladies de la bouche (inventor of the hinge articulator). p.306-308.

Garretson, James Edward (1869). A system of Oral Surgery (pioneer of orthognathic surgery).

Gelbier, S. (2016). Origins of dental education and training in the USA and UK. J Hist Dent.64:112-120.

Geist-Jacobi, GP (1896). Geschichte der Zahnheilkunde vom Jahre 3700 v. Chr bis zur Gegenwart. Verlag von Franz Pietzker, Tübingen. (opposite cover page – an ancient forceps).

Gerbi, Ranieri (1794). 1794, Storia naturale di un nuovo insetto. p. 92. (Curculio antiodontalgicus for toothache).

 Gessner, Conrad (1552). Thesaurus Euonymi Philiatri de remediis secretis. p. 425, 428. Publ. Andreas Gessner and Wyssenbach, Zurich. (description of ether distillation (oleo vitrioli – of Valerius Cordus – Hyeronymus Cordanus). (p. 427 –Vitrioli oleum a chymistis pariter et medicis expetitur, et tanquam res secretisima occulatur. Ego descriptiones aliquas pona quas ab amicis accepi, vel in libris manuscriptis inveni. Et post ceteras efficacissimum quenda et mihi cognitu huius olei modu declarabo, quo Empiricus quida apud nos ad omne ferme genus morboru curandu utebatur, et in multis quidem feliciter, etc.Vitriol (ether) oil is sought after by both chemists and physicians and is concealed as a most secret thing. I’ll list some descriptions I received from friends or found in handwritten books. And among the rest, I will show some of the most effective and, for me, the manner in which this oil is known, by which a certain Empiricus employed among us to cure almost every disease, and indeed in many successfully.)

Gies, WJ. (1919). The Journal of Dental Research (Editorial) – J Dent Res.1:1-7. 

Gies, William J. (1926). Dental education in the United States and Canada. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

Gladstone, Ethel (1933). Clysmatica Nova (1665). Elsholtz’ Neglected Work on Intravenous Injection: Part I. Cal West Med. 1933; 38(6):432-434.

Gladstone, Ethel (1933). (a). Clysmatica Nova (1665). Elsholtz’ Neglected Work on Intravenous Injection: Part II. Cal West Med. 1933; 39(1):45-47.

Gladstone, Ethel (1933). (b). Clysmatica Nova (1665). Elsholtz’ Neglected Work on Intravenous Injection: Part III. Cal West Med. 1933; 39(2):119-123.

Gladstone, Ethel (1933). (c). Clysmatica Nova (1665). Elsholtz’ Neglected Work on Intravenous Injection: Part IV. Cal West Med. 1933; 39(3):190-193.

Glass RI, Zahnder HA (1949) Pulp healing. Journal of Dental Research 28, 97-107.

Glenner, RA (1996). How it evolved: the modern reclining dental chair. J. Hist. Dent. 44(3): 122-124. 

Glenner, RA (2000). How it evolved: the dental chair – early development. J. Hist. Dent. 48(1): 21-24

Goldberg Hyman JV, Pinsky Theresa M, Jones Norine (1977). A short history of treating cleft lip and cleft palate. Bull Hist dent. 25(2):71-78. (general reference for cleft lip and palate surgery and palatal obturators.)

Goldberg, M . (2011). Pulp healing and regeneration: more questions than answers. Adv Dent Res. 23(3):270–274.

Goodyear, Charles (1844) Improvements in India-rubber Fabrics. US Patent Office, Patent #3633, June 15, 1844.

Gordh, T. (1949). Xylocain, a new local analgesic. Anaesthesia, 4:4–9. (the discovery of xylocaine by Niels Löfgren).

Gorraeus, Johannes (Jean de Gorris) (1564). Definitionum medicarum Liber XXIIII. p 376 (Lat: dentiscalpia – Gr: οδοντογλυφα – odontoglypha)

Gottlieb, Bernhard and Orbán, Bálint (1938). The Biology and Pathology of the Tooth and its Supporting Mechanisms. New York: MacMillan Inc.

Grand View Research (2020). Oral Care Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Product (Mouthwash/Rinse, Toothbrush, Toothpaste, Denture Products, Dental Accessories), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2018 – 2025. (accessed, 2020, March 20).

Greer, Arthur (2015). Epinephrine: a short history. The Lancet, 3(5): 329-414. 

Greenfield EJ (1913). Implantation of artificial crown and bridge abutments. Dental Cosmos, 55(4):364-369. (Implant of a cylinder into the jaw and placement of a crown).

Gronthos, S, Mankani, M, Brahim, J, Robey, PG, Shi, S. (2000). Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97(25):13625–13630.

Grossman LI. (1943). Irrigation of root canals. J Am Dent Assoc, 30: 1915-1917. (Uses solutions of sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide)

Guerini, Vincenzo (1901). The Historical Development of Dental Art. Dental Cosmos, 43, (1), January 1901, pp. 1-10.

Guerini, Vincenzo (1909). A History of Dentistry from the Most Ancient Times until the End of the Eighteen Century. Lea and Fabiger, Philadelphia, pp. 355.

Guillemeau, Jacques (1612). Les Oeuvres de chirurgie de Jacques Guillemeau, avec les portraicts de toutes les parties du corps humain et des instruments nécessaires au chirurgien, augmentées et mises en un et enrichies de plusieurs traictez, pris des leçons de Me Germain Courtin. p. 502-503. (First attempt to use artificial teeth and restorations made of “mineral paste”). He states: (Cette paste peut aussi ſeruir à mettre dedans une dent creuse, afin d’empecher qu’il ne tombe et se cache quelque viande en mangeant, qui les pourrist d’avantag, et excite souvent grande douleur.) “That same material (mineral paste) can also be used to put inside a hollow cavity to prevent meat from getting stuck inside…and often excites great pain.)

Guillemeau, Jacques, (1612) (b). Les Oeuvres de chirurgie de Jacques Guillemeau, avec les portraicts de toutes les parties du corps humain et des instruments nécessaires au chirurgien, augmentées et mises en un et enrichies de plusieurs traictez, pris des leçons de Me Germain Courtin. Paris, Chez Nicolas Buon (p. 502-3, Speculum oris et matricis, item A/B). p.186 and 684. Defining epoulis and paroulis, p186 and treating gingival putrefaction with nitric/hydrochloric acid, p.684).

Gutmann, James L. (2008). History of Endodontics In Ingle’s Endodontics, Chapter 2, p. 36-85.

Gysi, Alfred (1908) (a). Beitrag zum Artikulationsproblem. Beschreibung meines neuen Artikulators. p.26-31. Berlin. (New articulator with the guiding plane).

Gysi, Alfred (1912) (b). Neure Gesichtspunkte im Artikulationsproblem. Schweizerische Vierteljahrsschrift fir Zahnheilkunde, 22:118-151. (Articulator and the work of Francis Hancock Balkwill).

Hallikainen, Dorrit (1996). History of Panoramic Radiography. Acta Radiologica, 37:3, 441-445.

Halsted, William Stewart (1913). Ligature and Suture Material….also an account of the introduction of gloves…JAMA. 60(15):1119-1126. doi:10.1001/jama.1913.04340150001001 p.1123-1124. (History of the surgical gloves).

Hanau, Rudolph L. (1921). Dental articulator. US Patent Office. Patent # 1,586739 was issued June 1, 1926 (Applied Feb 3, 1921).

Hardy, Irving R. (1965). History of the specialty of prosthodontics. J. Prosth. Dent. 15(5): 946-948.

Hardy, K., Radini, A., Buckley, S. , et al. (2017). Diet and environment 1.2 million years ago revealed through analysis of dental calculus from Europe’s oldest hominin at Sima del Elefante, Spain. Sci Nat 104, 2. (Use of toothpick 1.2 million years ago).

Hardwick J. L. (1960) The incidence and distribution of caries throughout the ages in relation to the Englishman’s diet. Br. Dent. J. 108, 9-17.  ( (caries rates in England V-XiXc.)

Harlan, A.W. (1884). Removing stains from the teeth caused by administration of medicinal agents and the bleaching of pulpless teeth. (Presented at the Oral and Dental Surgery Section of the American Medical Association, May 1884). Am. J. Dent. Sci. p.521 (Using hydrogen peroxide as a bleaching agent).

Harris, Chapin A. (1849). A dictionary of Dental Science, Biography, Bibliography, and Medical Terminology. Lindsay and Blackiston, Philadelphia. pp.819.

Harris, Chapin (1849). The Principles and Practice of Dental Surgery, Chapter VI, p.347-348, (Dr. JH Foster has filled 40 teeth with 95% success rate 38 success/40 teeth =95%); p.351 – side effects of arsenic.

Harrison, Frederick (1896). The New Photography and its Application to Dental Practice. J Br Dent Assoc 17:343-344.

Hartmann, Johannis (1632). Praxis Chymiatrica. Published in Geneva by Leonardo Chouet.

p. 120, Odontalgia Cap. LXXIII. Paragraph 4.  – recipe for dental pain. The original Latin text is: Si dentes sunt cavi & dolent, vel etiam citra cavitatem in dentibus dolentibus præstans est oleum cariophyllorum in cuius ʒ j.(1 grain) camphoræ. Solutus fuerit, hujus compositi gutta una vel altera in gossipio (præfertim moschum redolente) cavo  denti immissa.   Also using Zedoary powder, powder made of the rhizome of the Curcuma zedoaria, an Indian plant of the ginger family). Applied onto the painful tooth. (see also, Lazarus Rivierius, 1595-1655), Practix Medica, Liber I, Cap 16).  Similarly, Hartmann used Boxwood oil – oleo buxi.

p. 138. The original Latin text is Si, qui dolent, dentes cavi sunt, praestans est oleum caryophyllorum, in cujus drachma solutus est camphorae semiscrupulus.( Free translation: For painful cavitated teeth place a mixture of 60 gm of camphor oil and clove oil.)  A mixture of clove oil and camphor oil droplets was placed on a cotton ball and inserted into the tooth, with severe pain. It is probably the first description of using this mixture in case of severe decay/dental pain.

Hauptmeyer, Frederich (1920). Uber die Verwendung von nicht rostfreiem Stahl in der Zahnheilkunde. Deutsche Monatsschrift Für Zahnheilkunde. 38:1-7. (1919 invention of corrosive resistant alloys in dentistry).

Hawass Zahi, Gad Yehia Z, Ismail Somia et al. (2010). Ancestry and Pathology in King Tutankhamun’s Family. JAMA, 303(7):638-647. (King Tut and his father had cleft palate).

Haywood VB, Heymann HO (1989). Nightguard Vital Bleaching. Quintessence Int 20:173-176. PMID: 2762507 (night guard bleaching era starts).

Heister, Lorenz (1762). Compendium medicinæ practicæ. Sumptibus Societatis, Amstelædami, Ch. XIII, Odontalgia, p.174-175. The original Latin text is: …in cavum dentis erosi, vel olei piperis, caryophyllorum, aut ligni guaiaci, vel per se ope penicilli immissi, vel cum opio et camphora in forma pilulae denti cavo intrusi, et subinde, si dolor non credit, repetiti. (use of pepper and clove oil, guaiacum tree, either taken internally or applied with a brush, or opium and camphor pills placed inside the cavity, and then, if the pain does not subside, repeat).

Hellwig, Christoph, von (1700). Freuenzimmer-Apotheckgen. Groschuff, XXXI, p.39. (First scientific description of the modern toothbrush).

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Hermann BW (1930) (a). Dentinobleration der Wurzelkanale nach der Behandlung mit Kalcium. Zahnarzt Rundschau 1930; 39: 888-9. (Calcium hydroxide, Calxyl as a pulp capping agent).

Hermann BW (1936) (b).  Biologische Wurzelbehandlung. Frankfurt am Main: Kramer. (Calcium hydroxide as a secondary dentin stimulant).

Heurni, Ioannis (1609). De morbus dentium et oris, In: Opera Omnia, Ex Officina Palatiana p. 61 

(Tophos dentium hoc modo adimes: accipe oleum sulphuris per campanem effumatum, idque remisce cum aqua rosacea, et bombace intinda tangatur summitas dentium). For using sulphuric oil mixed with rose water to smooth sharp edges/rough surfaces on teeth, a precursor of the acid etch technique.)

Hillam, Christine. (1990). The roots of dentistry. The Lindsay Society for the History of Dentistry, BDK.

Hippocrates of Kos (1576). Magni Hippocratis Coaca Præsagia (Translated and edited by Jacques Houllier.  Published in Lyon, 1576 by Guillaume Rouille).

Hirsch (Hirschfeld), Frederich (1796). Practishe Bemerkunde uber die Zahne und einige Krankheiten derselben, Jena 1796. First cement like material, 131-132.

Hermann BW (1930) . Dentinobleration der Wurzelkanale nach der Behandlung mit Kalcium. Zahnarzt Rundschau 1930; 39: 888. (Calcium hydroxide as a pulp capping agent).

Heurni, Ioannis (1609). De morbus dentium et oris, In: Opera Omnia, Ex Officina Palatiana p. 61 

(The actual text is: Tophos dentium hoc modo adimes: accipe oleum sulphuris per campanem effumatum, idque remisce cum aqua rosacea, et bombace intinda tangatur summitas dentium). For using sulphuric oil mixed with rose water to smooth sharp edges/rough surfaces on teeth, a precursor of the acid etch technique.)

Hoffmann-Axthelm, Walter (1981). History of Dentistry (Translated from German H.M. Koehler, Chicago:, Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., pp. 435.

p.30 toothpaste in antiquity; 

p.36 gargling in India with Barringtonia; 

p.43 amalgam in China; 

p.44 Use of finger extraction in Ancient China and Japan

p.51 The use by Aztecs of hot resin placed into the tooth to necrotize the pulp and control pain; 

p.94 Rhazes treatment of gingival abscess with cauterization; 

p.95 Rhazes cauterization of pulp with a hot iron; 

p.115 Lateran Council decree; 

p.120 Ibn Sina – cauterization of pulp with hot iron, arsenic, and vitriol using a protective funnel;

p.129 Guy de Chauliac is the first to describe the pelican

p.142 Pelican and Aquapendente;  

p.156 Stockerius amalgam;

p157 cauterization and oil for toothache and use of the protective tube, Rhazes, and Avicenna;

p.189 gargling with urine Catullus and Fauchard;

p.195 Frederick the Elector 1685 edict prep. since 1661; 

p.199 Fauchard’s comparing periodontitis to scurvy; 

p.215 First woman dentist in Paris  Marie-Madelaine Calais; 

p.244 woman had the right to practice dentistry in Russia since 1829; 

p.265 using plaster as an impression material by Gilbert and Dwinnell;   

p.294 the Rostaig father-son description of the dental cement 1858;  

p.298 bow drill; 

p.306 battery operated drill

p.308 first electric drill was introduced in 1887; 

p.311 cauterization in ancient Greece Hippocrates and Archigenes; 

p.311 pulp capping Phillip Pfaff 1756;

p.314 fig 361 – Edward Hudson performed root canal filling with gold in 1824-25; 

p. 319 silver nitrate for caries prevention;

p.344 – History of Oral Surgery

Hoernle, Rudolph, A.F. (1897). The Bower Manuscript; facsimile leaves, Nagari transcript, romanized transliteration, and English translation with notes. Calcutta, Superintendent government printing. P.187 (for toothache)

Horn HR. (1983). Porcelain laminate veneers bonded to etched enamel. Dent Clin North Am 27:671–684. (Porcelain veneers bonding).

Horstius, Jacob (1595). De aureo dente maxillari pueri Silesii. Lipsiae (The boy with the golden tooth).

Howe, Percy R. (1913).  Experiments showing the excretion of medicinal substances through the salivary glands

Dental Cosmos, 55(1):37-39. 

Howe Percy R. (1917). A method of sterilizing and at the same time impregnating with a metal-affected dentinal tissue. Dental Cosmos 59(9):891–904. (ammoniacal silver nitrate in sterilizing cavities)

Hullihen, Simon P. (1844). Compound Root Forceps. Am. J. Dental Sci. IV:254-55. (Root forceps, OS)

Hyson, John M. (2001). Man and Pain: Eternal Partners, J Hist Dent, Vol. 49(3):115-121 (bite the bullet).

Hyson, John H. (2003). History of the toothbrush. J Hist Dent. 51(2):73-80.

Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Future of Dental Education. (1995). Dental Education at the Crossroads. Challenges and Change, Field Marilyn, J (ed). National Academies Press. DOI: 10.17226/4925

Jain, Ashish R. (2016). Articulators through the Years Revisited: From 1900 to 1950 – Part II. World J. Dent. 7(1):23-31. 

Jardine L (2002). On a grander scale, The outstanding life of Sir Christopher Wren. New York, Harper Collins, pp 122-123. (on Ch. Wren and first injection of anesthetic).

Jung C, Kim S, Sun T et al. (2018). Pulp-dentin regeneration: current approaches and challenges. J. Tissue Regeneration. 10:1-13. (Pulp regeneration)

Kakehashi S., Stanley HR, Fitzgerald RJ. (1965). The effects of surgical exposure of dental pulps in germ-free and conventional laboratory rats. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1965;20:340-349. doi:10.1016/0030-4220(65)90166-0. (study demonstrating the importance of a germ-free environment for a successful endodontic treatment).

Kevles, Bettyann H. (1997). Naked to the Bone: Medical Imaging in the Twentieth Century, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ, p 43.

Khatak, M (2010) Salvadora Persica, Pharmacogn Rev. 2010 Jul-Dec; 4(8): 209–214. doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.70920

Khodadoust, C., Ardalan, M., Pourabbas, al., (2013). Dental and oral diseases in Medieval Persia, lessons from Hedayat Akhawayni. J Med Ethics Hist Med, 2013, 6:9. (al-Bokhari, cauterization of caries). 

Khoo, Boo-Chai (1966). “An Ancient Chinese Text on a Cleft Lip.” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 38:2, 89-91. (First description of surgical correction of cleft lip).

Kinane, D., Stathopoulou, P. & Papapanou, P. (2017). Periodontal diseases. Nat Rev Dis Primers 3, 17038.

Kingsley, William Norman (1880). A treatise on oral deformities as a branch of mechanical surgery. New York

Kinsler, Miriam (1969).The American Woman Dentist: A Brief Historical Review from 1855 Through 1968. J Hist Dent. 17:25-31.

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Kiss Laszlo (2015). Ecclesia abhorret a sanguine – Mikortol is? Orvosi Hetilap (Hungarian). 157(14): 554-557. DOI: ).

Kneisel, Frederich Christoph (1836).  Der Schiefstand dar Zahne/The Oblique Position of the Teeth (First specialized orthodontic study).

Kneisel, Johann Friedrich Christoph (1841). Der Schiefstend der Zahne; Position irreguliere des dents (The oblique position of the teeth). Berlin, Posnan and Bromberg. . (First dedicated orthodontic study written in German and French).

Koch, Charles RE. (1910). A profession in which the demand exceeds the supply. Northwestern Dental Journal, Volume VIII, Nr. 1. p.69-72. ( (total number of dental school graduates in 1880 = 3,177, representing 25.8% of the total dentists).

Kraftheim, Johann Craton von (1697). Thesaurus medicinæ practicæ. Ex præstantissimorum medicorum observationibus … summâ diligentiâ collectus … De Dentium Dolores, p. 273. Editio novi.

Kurdyk, Bernard (1998). Dentures made of Sevres Porcelain. J. Hist. Dent. 46(3), p.99-102.

Kwon, Ran So (2016). Introduction to Tooth Whitening. IN: Tooth Whitening: An Evidence-Based Perspective. Germany: Springer International Publishing, Perdigao, Jorge (ed.). p.1-20.

Ladha, Komal and Verma, Mahesh (2011). 19th Century Denture Base Materials Revisited. J Hist Dent 59 (1), 1-11 Spring 2011 (denture base materials).

Lane, Nick (2015). The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) Concerning little animals. 370Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B.

Langland, Olaf E, Fortier, Peter (1972). C Edmund Kells. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology. 34(4):680-689. (C Edmund Kells took the first X-ray in 1896).

Lautenschlager, Heinrich (1803). Nachricht von einem neuen Zahn-Instrument….Journal der Practichen Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst (W. Hufeland), 17(2):50-55. Hand-cranked dental drill developed in 1803.

Leek, F. Filce (1967). The Practice of Dentistry in Ancient Egypt. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, Vol. 53, pp. 51-58. Sage Publications, Ltd.

Leeuwenhoek A v. (1684). An abstract of a letter from Mr. Anthony Leeuwenhoek at Delft, dated Sep. 17. 1683, containing some microscopical observations about animals in the scurf of the teeth, the substance called worms in the nose, the cuticula consisting of scales. Philosophical Transactions: The Royal Society Publishing. 1684;14:568–574. Illustration of first spirochets from a human mouth.)

Leeuwenhoeck, Antoni Van (1952).The Collected Letters of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Vol IV (1683-1684) (in Dutch). C.V.Swets and Zeitlinger, Amsterdam. (

Leeuwenhoek, Antony van (2020). Lens on Leeuwenhoek.  (accessed June 21, 2020).

Lefoulon, Joachim (1841). Nouveau traité théorique et pratique de l’art du dentiste. p. 258. (introduced the excavators and hand drills.) (First to suggest that the maxilla and mandible can be expanded through gentle force. He was the first to suggest the lingual arch.)

Leibowitz, Joshua O. (1958). Amatus Lusitanus and the Obturator in Cleft Palates. J. Hist Med. All. Sci. 13(4):492-503. (Lusitanus and the first obturator – good translation of Latin text and description of the first case).

Lever Walter F, Talbott John H (1942). A clinical analysis and follow-up study of sixty-two patients. Arch. Dermatol. Syphilol. 46:348-357.

Lewis, John (1838). Universal bevel-gear suited to all possible directions from a straight line to one hundred. US Patent 1025, issued on 11.29.1838. (patent for a hand-cranked dental drill.

Linderer, Joseph Calmann (1834). Lehre von den gesammten Zahnoperation nach den Quellen und eigener vierzigjahrigen Erfahrung. p 73. (First walrus inlay, CHECK PAGE in library).

Linderer, Joseph Calmann (1837). Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde. Berlin (Histology of teeth). (Check the image with caries in our collection)

Linderer, C. J., Linderer, Joseph (1842). Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde. Berlin, Schlesinger’sche Buch und Musikhandlung. Vol I. p. 189, Tabl. XIII, Fig. 3.

Linkow, Lenard (1970). Theories and Techniques of Oral Implantology, MO, CV Mosby, St.  Louis.

Lippert, Frank, (2013) An Introduction to Toothpaste – Its Purpose, History, and Ingredients. In: Toothpastes. Monogr. Oral Sci Basel, Karger, Van Loveren C (ed.),  2013, Vol 23, pp. 1-14. DOI: 10.1159/00350456

Lister, Joseph (1867). On the Antiseptic Principle in the Practice of Surgery. The British Medical Journal, Sept. 21, p: 246-248. (Using carbolic acid).

Loesch, Walter J. (1986). Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev.  (50)4:358-380.

Löe H, Theiladt: E, Jensen SB (1965).  Experimental gingivitis in man.  J  Periodontol 36:177-187. (Correlation between plaque and periodontal disease proven)

Löe, Harald (1993). Periodontal disease: A brief historical perspective. Periodontology 2000. 2:7-12. (History of periodontics).

Loevy, Hannelore T. and Kowitz, Aletha A. (2002). Women Dentists, Hobbs and After. J. Hist. Dent. 50-3:123-130.

Longrigg, James (1988). Anatomy in Alexandria in the Third Century B.C. The British Journal for the History of Science, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 455- 488. Cambridge University Press.

López-ValverdeJ. de VicenteL. Martínez-Domínguez & R. Gómez de Diego (2014).  Local anesthesia through the action of cocaine, the oral mucosa, and the Vienna group. British Dental Journal, 217, 41-43, 2014 July. 

Lowe, Peter (1612). A Discourse of the Whole Art of Chyrurgery. Lib V, Chapter XXX, Of the Corrupt and Hallow Tooth, p.194. (whalebone and ivory for artificial teeth).

Lozano M, Subirà ME, Aparicio J, et al. (2013). Toothpicking and Periodontal Disease in a Neanderthal Specimen from Cova Foradà Site (Valencia, Spain). PLOS ONE 8(10): e76852. (use of toothpick in Neanderthal and Paleolithic)

Lumsden, AG. (1988). Spatial organization of the epithelium and the role of neural crest cells in initiating the mammalian tooth germ. Development. 103(Suppl):155–169.

Lundstrom, Axel Frederik (1925). Malocclusion of the teeth regarded as a problem in connection with the apical base. International Journal of Orthodontia, Oral Surgery and Radiography,  Elsevier, 11(7):591-602; 11(8):724-731; 11(9):793-812; 11(10):933-941; 11(11):1022-1042; and 11(12):1109-1133. (refuting Angle’s insistence of not extracting teeth for orthodontic purposes).

Lusitanus, Amatus (1560). Curationum Medicinalium, p.42-43. Venice. (First obturator described). (He calls the cleft palate: “ulcus palato innatum”.

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Lyman, Henry (1881). Artificial Anesthesia and Anesthetics, p.6.

Maggiolo M (1807). Le manuel de l’art du dentiste. (With an introduction of Jourdan M).  p.77, Planche I, Item 11, 12,13,14).

Malpighi, Marcello (1687). Exercitationes anatomicae de structura viscerum…pulmonibus” In: Opera Omnia. (v2, p320-331, Illustration p331, Table II, Fig 1-2).

Manuel, DE. (2009). Dental education in Paris in the 1830s.  Dent. Hist. 49:4-15.

Martin, Bernardin (1679). Dissertation sur les Dents. Chez Denys Thierry, Paris. p.130.  (a humoral theory as for the cause of periodontal disease).

Martinez de Castrillo, Francisco (1557). Coloquio breve y compendioso sobre la materia de la dentadura y maravillosa obra de la boca. p.46. (One of the earliest books on dentistry, the first Spanish text on dentistry; scaling instruments). One of the first to illustrate an excavator to remove caries, p.46.

Maury, J.C.F. (1820) (a). Manuel du dentiste, pour application des dents artificielles incoruptible; suivi de la description de divers instruments perfectionees. 1st ed.. Paris, Latour, Libraire. Planche IV – drill.

Maury, C.F. (1841). Traite complete de l’art du dentiste. Planche XXIV. 3d Ed.  Libraire des Sciences Medicales, Paris 1841. (reference for modern dental mirror, dental probe, dental drill, dental chair).

McCarthy, Francis (1936). Etiology, pathology, and treatment of leukoplakia buccalis. Arch Dermatol. 34:612-621.

McKay, Frederick S. (1929). The establishment of a definitive relation between enamel that is defective in its structure, such as Mottled enamel, and its liability to decay. Dental Cosmos 71:747-755.

McLean, J.W., Wilson, A.D. (1974). Fissure sealing and filling with an adhesive glass-ionomer cement. Brit. Dent. J., 136:7, 269-276.

Meiers, Peter. Early dental fluoride preparations. Saarbrucken, Germany, last updated May 28, 2021.

Michaels (P?) (1900). On Sialo-Semeiology: Analysis of the saliva as an aid in the diagnosis of diathetic diseases and gingivo-dental changes. Dental Cosmos, 42 (12):1293-1297.  His name appears as Dr. Michaels of Paris, not P, as in his first name. His first name is unknown. Presented at the 3d International Dental Congress in Paris. The first study was on saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

Mikulitz J and Kummel W (1898). Krankheiten des Mundes (Diseases of the Mouth). Chapter 66. Gustav Fisher, Jena.

Miller, Willoughby, D. (1890). The microorganisms of the human mouth. Philadelphia, p.333. (Suggested to irrigate periodontal pocket with disinfectant solution,

Miller Willoughby, D. (1891). The human mouth as a focus of infection. Dent Cosmos,  33: 689-713. (Good review of the bacterial nature of many infections in the mouth). link:

Miller Willoughby, D. (1891). The disinfection of dental and surgical instruments. Dental Cosmos 33(7):514-526. (First paper on the need for sterilization for dentistry).

Miller Willoughby, D. (1894). An introduction to the study of the bacterio-pathology of the dental pulp. Dent Cosmos,  36:505-528.

Miller, Willoughby, D. (1898). Lerhbuch der Conservirenden Zahnheilkunde. Leipzig, pp. 462. (Conservative dentistry textbook in German).

Miller, D. Willoughby (c) (1905). Preventive treatment of the teeth with special reference to silver nitrate. Dental Cosmos 47:64:913-922.

Miller, Charles H (1938). Textbook of Periodontia. Philadelphia, Blackiston Co.

Miles, AEW and Grigson, Carolyn (1936). Colyer’s Variations and Diseases of the Teeth in Animals. p.529. (Periodontitis in animals).

Mina, M, Kollar, EJ. (1987). The induction of odontogenesis in non-dental mesenchyme combined with early murine mandibular arch epithelium. Arch Oral Biol. 32(2):123–127. 

Minozzi, Simona; Panetta, Daniele; De Sanctis, Massimo; Giuffra, Valentina (2017). A dental prosthesis from the Early Modern Age in Tuscany (Italy). Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 19(2): 365-371. (Thread-supported prosthodontic device described in de Chauliac and Paré).

Mitchell, Donald L, Wilkie, Noel D. (1978). Articulators through the years. Part I. Up to 1940. J. Prosth. Dent. 39(3): 330-338. DOI:  

Mitchell, Donald L, Wilkie, Noel D. (1978). Articulators through the years.  Part II. From 1940. J. Prosth. Dent. 39(4): 451-458.

Monash, Samuel (1931). Oral Lesions of Lupus EWrythematosus. Dental Cosmo0s 73:511-515.

Rogers, Arthur M, Coriell Lewis L, Blank Harvey, McNair Scott Thomas F (1949). Acute herpetic gingivostomatitis in the adult. New England J Med. 241:330-333.

Monthly Consular and Trade Reports (1906). Dental Clinic: Teeth of school children treated. Dept. of Commerce and Labor Bureau of Manufactures. January 1906, (304):249. (Children’s clinic opens in Strasbourg in 1902).

Moore W. J. and Corbett M. E. (1971) The distribution of dental caries in ancient British populations. I. Anglo-Saxon period. Caries Res. 5, 15 1. ( (caries rates in England V-XiXc.))

Moore W. J. and Corbett M. E. (1973) The distribution of dental caries in ancient British populations. II. Iron Age, Romano-British, and Mediaeval periods. Caries Res. 7, 139. ( (caries rates in England V-XiXc.))

Moore W. J. and Corbett M. E. (1975) The distribution of dental caries in ancient British populations. III. The 17th Century. Caries Res. 9, 163. (caries rates in England V-XiXc.)

Moore, W. J. (1983).   Sugar and the antiquity of dental caries. In: The role of sugar in the etiology of dental caries P. J. Holloway, Ph.D., BDS, (Editor). Journal of Dentistry, 11, No. 3, pp. 189-213. (caries incidence in England from the iron age to the 19th century).

Morgenthau, Lazarus (1877). Tongue scraper Patent # 194364, Aug 30, 1877.

Morrison, James Beall (1871).United States Patent Office, Dental Endine, Patent # 111667, February 7, 1871.

Morrison, Wm. N. (1869). A New Operation. Missouri Dental Journal, Vol I, May 1869, p. 184-185. (The 1869 publication, Morrison claimed to have done the first gold crown for a patient, Mrs. W. It sparked the field of fixed prosthodontics. It was four years before J.B. Beers got a patent. 1869 article is signed “N”. Morrison came forward in 1881, Dental Cosmos, Vol 23, p. 112, claiming he was the author of that 1869 article. He published a second article in 1884, Metallic Crowns,  in American J. Dent. Sci. Vol 17, p.13-20, his claim in more detail. It appears he has the earlier claim but not that of Mouton.

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Morton, William J and Hammer Edwin W. (1896). The X-Ray or Photography of the Invisible and its Value in Surgery. American Technical Book Co. New York, pp. 196.

Morton, William James (1896). The X-Ray in Dentistry. Dental Cosmos, 38(6): 478-486. (describing Edison’s fluorescent screen for capturing X-rays.)

Mouton, Claude (1746). Essay d’odontotechnie, ou, Dissertation sur les dents artificielles. p.85 – on dowel pin;  p.107 – clasps for partial denture,  p.137  (The first gold crown, coulotte d’or;)

Muffly, Tyler M, Tizzano Anthony P,  Walters Mark D (2011). The History and Evolution of Sutures in Pelvic Surgery. J R Soc Med, 104:107–112. DOI 10.1258/jrsm.2010.100243 (History of sutures, in general).

Muhler, J.C., Radike, A.W., Nibergall, H. et al. (1954). The effect of a stannous fluoride-containing dentifrice on caries reduction in children. J. Dent. Res. 33:606-612.

Murphy, Joseph (1811). A natural history of the human teeth. p.75. The first mention of a magnifying mirror. No description.

Nash, Charles (1884). Hints and Querries: Letters to the Editor (On testing “hydrochlorate of cocaine in dental operations by hypodermic injections”), Dental Cosmos, Vol XXVII:63-64. 

Nasmyth, James Engineer (1883). An Autobiography p.412-413 (1829 description of a drill using coiled steel).,+John,++An+autobiography&printsec=frontcover

Nessel, Franz (1840). Handbuch der Zahnheilkunde, p. 237. (Early depiction of dental cement of Wolfsohn).

Neuner, A. von (1827). Uber die kunstliche erzeugung von catarakten in todten. Augen… J. Chir. Augenhk., Berlin, 10:480-492. (description of the modern syringe).

Newton I (1701) Newton’s metal-Scalum graduum Caloris. Phil Transactions 270: 824-829.

Nishino M, Yoshida S, Sobue S, Kato J, Nishida M.(1969). Effect of topically applied ammoniacal silver fluoride on dental caries in children. Journal of Osaka University Dental School 9:149‐55. (early use of silver diamine fluoride)

Nunn, John F. (2002). Ancient Egyptian Medicine. Oklahoma Press, Norman 2002, ISBN 0-8061-3504-2, page 124.

Nutting EB, Poe GS (1963). A new combination for bleaching teeth. J So CA Dent Assoc 31:289-291. (“coined the walking bleach”)

Nyborg H (1955) Healing process in the pulp on capping. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 13,, 1-130. (Pulp capping).

Nyman S, Lindhe J, Karring T, Rylander H. (1982). New attachment following surgical treatment of human periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol  9: 290-296. (Guided tissue regeneration)

Ogbureke K and Ogbureke EI (2015). The history of salivary diagnostics. In: History of Salivary ProteomicsPublisher: Springer Press. Editors: Streckfus CF. p. 17-31. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-45399-5_2.

Ohazama, A, Modino, SA, Miletich, I, Sharpe, PT. 2004. Stem-cell-based tissue engineering of murine teeth. J Dent Res. 83(7):518–522. 

Orchardson R, Gillam DG. (2000). The efficacy of potassium salts as agents for treating dentin hypersensitivity. J Orofac Pain.14(1):9-19.

Orland, Frank J.,  Blayney, J. Roy, Harrison, R. Wendell, et al. (1954). Use of the Germfree Animal Technic in the Study of Experimental Dental Caries: I. Basic Observations on Rats Reared Free of All Microorganisms. J. Dent. Res. 33(2), 147–174.

Oxilia, G., Peresani, M., Romandini, M. et al. (2015). Earliest evidence of dental caries manipulation in the Late Upper Paleolithic. Sci Rep 5, 12150 (2015).

Oxilia G, Fiorillo F, Boschini F, Boaretto E, Apicella SA, Mateucci C, et al. (2017). The dawn of dentistry in the late upper Paleolithic: An early case of pathological intervention at Riparo Fredian. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017;163:446-461. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23216. 

Paatero, Yrjö V. (1946). Sunnittelemastani uudesta hampaiden rontgenkuvaustekniikasta. Suomen Hammasla Wriseuran Toimituksia 86: 37. (English summary: A new radiographic method in dentistry.) 

Papadiochos, Ioannis, Papadiochu, Sofia, Emmanouil, Ioannis (2017). The Historical Evolution of Dental Impression Materials. J. Hist Dent. 65(2):79-89. (general reference for impression materials)

Papagrigorakis, Manolis J., et al. (2014). Neurosurgery During the Bronze Age: A Skull Trepanation in 1900 BC Greece.  World Neurosurg.  81, 2:431-435. (Bronz Age skull trepanation, using sharp rotating instruments).

Paré, Ambroise (1583a).  Les instruments propres pour archer et rompre les dents. In: Ouvres, 1583a. p. 513-16.

Paré, Ambroise (1583b).  Cure particuliere des luxations: Et premierement de la mandibule inferieure (Chapter VIII), Maniere de reduire la mandibule luxeé en la partie anterieure des deux costez (Chapter IX) and Maniere de reduire la mandibule luxeé seulment d’un costé. (Chapter X). In: Ouvres, 1583b. p. 463-65.

Pare, Ambroise (1628). Oeuvres, p.895 (Tooth replacement)

Paré, Ambroise (1652). Oeuvres. Lyon, 11th edition, Chez Nicolas Buon, Paris.  

p. 210 – sutures, threads, needles

p. 237 – on using a hand drill and bur for skull trepanation, 

p. 328 – hot cauterization replaced with ligature for bleeding, 

p. 395D – on cauterization

p. 463 – mandibular subluxation

p. 574 – prosthetic treatment – La maniere d’accommoder les dents artificielles, 23d book, Chapter III;

p. 612 – on tooth worm and its treatment (“les vers”) – Chapter XXV. The actual text is the following: Et pour faire mourire les vers, faut appliquer choses caustique, ausi pyrethre destrampe en vinaigre, ou theriaque dissout en mesme liqueur: seront aussi appliquez ails, ou oignons, ou un d’aloe – And to kill the worms apply something caustic, hot, dissolved in vinegar or theriac dissolved in the same, or apply garlic, onion or aloe;

p. 613 – surgical instruments involved in extractions, pelican, forceps, elevators;

p. 895 – obturators. 

p. 1199A – mixture of egg yolk, oil of roses  and turpentine – ”un digestif fait de jaune d’oeuf, huile rosat, et terebenthine;,+oeuvres&printsec=frontcover.;

An English translation of his book was published in 1649.; 

Oral Surgery – Chapter XXVII. Les Instrumens propres pour arracher et rompre les dents..;

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Parmly, Levi Spear (1818). A practical guide to the management of the teeth. London, 1818, p.73. (The passage explains the three steps to preserve the teeth: 1. Toothbrush, 2. Dentifrice polisher, and 3. Waxed silken thread.)

Pasqualini ME. (2000) (a). Un impianto alloplastico in una mandibola di 1300 anni. Ricerca istologica. Dent Cadmos. 11:57–62.

Pasqualini U, Pasqualini ME Zampetti Paolo (2009) (b). The history of implantology. In: Treatise of implant dentistry: The Italian tribute to modern implantology. Ariesdue, Milan. (General reference for the history of implants and using clamshells for alloplasts). (Reproduction of Maggiolo’s implant – Fig. 30-34. 

Pashley DH, Kalathoor S, Burnham D. (1986). The effects of calcium hydroxide on dentin permeability. J Dent Res. 65(3):417-420.

Patterson, Alexander H. (1934). Seeing Prosthesis Through the Eyes of the Dental Cosmos. 76,(1) January 1934, pp. 67-88. (Early history of prosthetic dentistry with errors in the reference list.);size=100;view=image

Paulissian R.(1993). Dental care in Ancient Assyria and Babylonia. J Assyr Acad Soc. VII:96-116.

Paulissian R.(1991). Medicine in Ancient Assyria and Babylonia. J Assyr Acad Soc. V:3-51.

Pauwels, Ruben (2020). History of Dental Radiography: Evolution of 2D and 3D Imaging Modalities. Medical Physics International. Special Issue. History of Medical Physics. 3:235-277. (Excellent review of the history of dental radiology).

Pearson, S.L. (1955). A new elastic impression material: A preliminary report. Brit. Dent. J. 99, 72-76. (First rubber base impression material).

Peck, Sheldon (2012). Dentist, artist, pioneer. Orthodontic innovator Norman Kingsley and his Rembrandt portraits. JADA, 143(4):393-397.

Petersen PE, Lennon MA. (2004). Effective use of fluorides for the prevention of dental caries in the 21st century: the WHO approach. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 32(5):319–21.

Petersen PE, Ogawa H. (2016). Prevention of dental caries through using fluoride – the WHO approach. Community Dent Health, 33(2):66–8. (Effect of fluoridation worldwide)

Petroski, Henry (2007). The Toothpick. Alfred Knopf, New York, pp.443. (Effect of fluoridation worldwide).

Pfaff, Phillip (1756). Abhandlung von den Zahnen des menschlichen Körpers und deren Krankheiten. (First impression taking, use of plaster for models and the slab articulator).

Pickerill, Henry Percy (1912). Stomatology in general practice: A textbook of diseases of the teeth and mouth for students and practitioners. (modified gingivectomy of Robicsek and naming it as such).

Pieper, Oscar H. and Pieper, Alphonse H. (1894). US Patent #534374, Apr 30, 1894. Electrical apparatus for operating dental implements.,%201894%20534,374. (US patent for a wall-mounted electric cord-driven dental drill).

Pincus C. (1938). Building mouth personality. J California State Dental Assoc 1938;14: 125–9.

Pitts, N., Zero, D., Marsh, P. et al. (2017). Dental caries. Nat Rev Dis Primers 3, 17030.

Polet, C., Orban, R., & Noël, R. (Ed.) (2001). Les dents et les ossements humains: que mangeait-on au Moyen Âge ? (Typologie des sources du Moyen Âge occidental; Vol. 84). Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. pp 173. (Early Medical Caries rates of 3-23%).

Poller, Alfred (1924). Kurze Anleitung zum Abformen am lebenden und toten Menschen, sowie an leblosen Gegenstanden. Apostela, Wien. (Hydrocolloid impression material).

Prioreschi, Plinio (2003). History of Medicine, Vol V: Medieval Medicine. Horatius Press, Omaha. p. 430.

Prinz, Hermann (1915)  The dental medicines of Pedanios Dioscorides. Dental Cosmos, 639-645.

Prinz, Herman (1945). Dental Chronology. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. p. 189.

Purmannus, Mattheus Gotthofredus (1722). Grosser und gantz neu-gewundener Lorbeer-Krantz oder Wund-Artzney, Frankfurt und Leipzig, p. 219 (the first use of wax in dentistry)

Quintus (Sammonicus) Serenus (1590). Epigrammata et poematia vetera, Dionysius Duvallius, edited Pierre Pithou, p.134. (The volume includes Serennus Sammonicus’s  Liber Medicinalis under the title De medicina praecepta saluberima, (p.126-164). The exact quote about using mastic and myrtle to improve bad breath (phoetor oris): “Lentiscus myrtus emendant oris odorem” is on p.134.

Raitapuro-Murray T, Molleson TI and Hughes FJ (2014). The prevalence of periodontal disease in a Romano-British population c. 200-400 AD. Brit D. J. 217(8): 459-466. (Low moderate to severe periodontal disease prevalence among 2d-4th c. individuals).

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Raper, Howard R (1953). Notes on the early history of radiodontia. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology Volume 6, Issue 1: p 70-81. (C. Edmund Kell’s suicide).

Regnart, Louis Nicolas (1818). Memoire sur un nuveau moyen d’obturation des dents (the first modern use of amalgam. (Check copy in our library, may be among the NEW small books).

Renner, Franziscus (1557). Ein new wolgegründet nützlichs unnd haylsams Handtbüchlein gemeiner Praktik aller innerlicher und eusserliche. Nurnberg, 1557. Chapter 23, p. LXXXVI. (first description of an obturator).

Riaud, Xavier (2014). First Dental Radiograph (1896). Dent. Hist., 59(2) 87-8.

Ricci S. Capecchi G. Boschini S. et al., (2014). Toothpick use among Epigravettian Humans from Grotta Paglicci (Italy). Int J Osteoarchaeol (use of toothpick in Neanderthal and Paleolithic)

Richardson, Benjamin Ward (1866). A new method of producing local anesthesia applicable to dental surgery. Trans. Odont. Soc. Great Britain 5:45-68. (ether spray device for local anesthesia in extractions, spray on the mucosal surface).

Richmond, Cassius M (1883). Richmond tooth crown. US Patent Office. Patent # 277941, May 22, 1883. A prior patent was awarded to Richmond on Feb 10, 1880, under the title “Artificial tooth crown. The 1883 was an improvement. His patent was challenged in court.

Ring, Melvin E. (1987).The True Discovery of the Dental Air Turbine Handpiece, Sir John Walsh of New Zealand. Bull. Hist. Dent. 35(2): p.106-110.

Ripamonti, Ugo (1988)(a). Paleopathology in  Australopithecus africanus:  A  Suggested  Case of a 3-Million-Year-Old Prepubertal Periodontitis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 76:197-210. (3 million-year-old juvenile periodontitis).

Ripamonti, Ugo (1989)(b). The Hard Evidence of Alveolar Bone Loss in Early Hominids of Southern Africa

A Short Communication. J. Periodontol. 60(2): 118-120.

Ritter AV, de L Dias W, Miguez P, et al. (2006). Treating cervical dentin hypersensitivity with fluoride varnish: a randomized clinical study. J Am Dent Assoc. 137(7):1013-1020.

Rivière, Lazare (1660). Praxis Medica. Cap. III De gingivarum erosione et exculceratione. p.375. Ioannis Antonii Huguetan, Lugduni. (periodontal disease caused by acrid humor – humoribus acribus).

Robinson, James (1846). The surgical, mechanical, and medical treatment of the teeth. London. (Partial denture clasps and asbestos as a liner).

Röntgen, William (1895). Uber eine neue Art von Strahlen. Vorläufige Mitteilung. Aus den Sitzungsverichten der Würzburg Physic. -medic. Gesellschaft Würzburg: 137-147.

Rohrer, Albert (1910) Zahnpulver und Mundwässer, Verlag von Georg Siemens, Berlin, p. 104. (toothpaste at the turn of the 19/20 c.)

Rollins, William Herbert (1901). X-light kills. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 144:173.

Roscoe, Henry Enfield and Schorlemmer, Carl (1884). Treatise on Chemistry, Vol. III, Pt. I, pg. 323. (translation of Cordus, Valerii preparation of ether)

Ruffer, Armand, Sir (1920). Study of Abnormalities and Pathology of Ancient Egyptian Teeth. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 335-390. (for caries rates in ancient Egypt)

Ruysch, Frederick (1691).  Frederici Ruyschii … Observationum anatomico-chirurgicarum centuria : accedit catalogus rariorum, quae in museo Ruyschiano asservantur …p. 104. Amsterdam. (Relationship of tartar and periodontal disease).

Ryff, Walther Hermann (1548): Nützlicher bericht/ wie || man die Augen vnd das Gesicht/ wo das || selbig mangelhafft/ blöde/ dunckel oder befin=||stert. Scherpfen/ gesundt erhalten/|| stercken vnd bekrefftigen soll.|| … Mit weitterer vnterrichtung.|| Wie man den Mundt/ die Zän vnd Biller/|| frisch … vnd fest erhalten/|| … mög.|| Zu gemeiner wolfart neulich inn Truck verord=||net. Durch D. Gualtherum H. Riuium || Medicum & Chirurgum.|| (How to keep your mouth, teeth fresh, pure, clean, healthy, strong and firm for less). Johann Myller, Würzburg.

Rynd, Francis (1845). Treatment of neuralgia by narcotic inoculation applied to the nerve. Dublin Medical Press, March 12, 1845. Abstracted in The Half-Yearly Abstract of the Medical Sciences, Vol I, January-June 1845. p.29-30, Ed. W.H. Ranking. (using a steel hollow needle – although the needle is not described).

Sanchez, Gonzalo M. And Meltzer, Edmund S. (2012). Mandibular dislocation. In: The Edwin Smith Papyrus: Updated Translation of the Trauma Treatise and Modern Medical Commentaries. Lockwood Press, Atlanta, GA. Plate IX:2-6, pp.172-175.

Sachs, Hans. Der Zahnstocher und seine Geschichte. Hermann Meuser, Berlin, 1913, pp. 52. (The toothpick and its history). Translated by Anna C. Souchuk, Published by Steven R Potashnick, 2010, ISBN-13: 978-1456494179).

Sanoudos M, Christen AG. 1999. Levi Spear Parmly: the apostle of dental hygiene.  J Hist Dent. 1999 Mar;47(1):3-6.

Sather, David A., and Herbert T. Shillingburg (2012). Fundamentals of Fixed Prosthodontics. Vol. Fourth edition, International Quintessence Publishing Group. (Porcelain veneers bonding). 

Schaffer, Jacob Christian (1757). Die eingebildeten Wurmer in Zahnen nebst dem vermeyntlichen Hülfsmittel wider dieselben – The imaginary Worms in Teeth and the alleged remedies against the same. Regensburg, p.42.

Schange, Alexis  J.M. (1841). Precis sur le redressement des dents. p.128, Fig 11. Paris. (First use a flat elastic band for maxillary protrusion).

Schiappa J, Hee R. Van (2012). From Ants to Staples : History and Ideas Concerning Suturing Techniques, Acta Chir Belg, 112, 395-402. (Using giant ants in ancient India as a substitute for sutures).

Serre, Johann Jacob Joseph (1803). Praktische darschtellung aller Operationen der Zahnheilkunst, Berlin. p.370 (wax impression, plaster mold and orthodontic appliance preparation with a goldsmith).

Schrott, Johann Joseph (1864). System den genauesten Abdruck und die siecherste Artikulazionzu Erhalten. Dtsch. Vjschr. Zahnheilk. 4 (1864) 296-304.  (First functional impression for complete dentures).

Scribonius, Largus (1529). De compositione medicamentorum liber. Cratandrus, Basileae 1529. p. 40-43. (cinquefoils extraction mixed with wine as toothache remedy).

Sedgley, Christine (2004).Root Canal Irrigation Perspective. J Hist. Dent. 52:2:61-64. (review of the history of endodontics).

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Selikoff, Irving, J and Robitzek, Edward H (1947). Gingival biopsy for the diagnosis of generalized amyloidosis. Am. J. Pathol. 23:1099-1108.

Seiler, Roger; Spielman, Andrew I., Zink, Albert R., Ruhli, Frank (2013). Oral pathologies of the Neolithic Iceman, c.3,300 BC. European Journal Of Oral Sciences 121(3 Pt 1):137-41. DOI: 10.1111/eos.12037.

Seiler, Roger, Galassi, Francesco M.; Ruhli, Frank (2017). Fauchard, Boerhaave and the Pathogenesis of Periodontitis in the 17th and 18th Centuries. European Journal Of Oral Sciences 125(3). DOI: 10.1111/eos.12344 reviews of Boerhaave influencing Fauchard in his views on the periodontal disease)

Serre, Johann Jacob Joseph (1803). Praktische Darstellung aller Operationen der Zahnheilkunst (Practical Exposition of all the operations of Dental Surgery). Berlin, p. 93. (Root removal instrument- corkscrew)

Severinus, Marcus Aurelius (1646). De Efficaci Medicina. (First use of freezing/ice to induce analgesia). Chapter 10-11, p. 18-19. (Using cold to induce analgesia)

Sharaf al-Dīn (Şerefeddin) Sabuncuoğlu (1466). Supplément turc 693. Traité de chirurgie, traduit d’un original persan, qui avait été composé sous le règne des Mongols de Perse, avec le titre de جرّاحيّۀ خانیّه « Chirurgie impériale. Image of cauterization of a tooth, islamic scholars. p.29. (

Shklar, Gerlad and Chernin, David (2000). Eustachio and “Libellus de dentibus” the first book devoted to the structure and function of the teeth. J.Hist. Dent. 48(1):25-30

Shklar, Gerald and Chernin, David, (2001). A Sourcebook of Dental Medicine, Maro Publications, p.23 (Ebers Papyrus); Edwin Smith Papyrus (p.27); Susruta Samhita, India (p.36); Dioscorides; p.46 -tongue scraper; p. 52 -Chinese medicine, Nei Ching recommends treatment for various periodontal disease using acupuncture; extractions; p.62 (halitosis and Talmud; p.111, Arab medicine p.163. Lorenz Heister p.412-19; Vitamin B deficiencies – p.718

Shklar, Gerald and Chernin, David (2002). Dental Classics in Perspective (Series), Vol III. A Sourcebook of Dental Medicine. Maro Publications, Waban, MA. pp. 839.

Shklar, Gerald and Chernin, David (2002). Eleazar Parmly: Clinician, Educator, Poet. J. Hist. Dent. 51(2):51-55.

Shklar, G. and Chernin, D. (2007). Lorenz Heister and Oral Disease with the Original Text from His Papers. J. Hist. Dent. 55(2):68-74. (Based on a translation of Heister and his recommendation to use pepper and clove oil and guaiacum tree extract for toothache).

Sibley, W.K. (1899). Neurotic ulcers of the mouth. Brit. Med. J. 1:900-906.

Simon, Franz (1846). Animal Chemistry. Physiology and Pathology of Man. p.473. (Berzelius’ compositional analysis of calculus – phosphate 79, mucin 12.5, ptyalin 1, organic matter 7.5)

Snell, James (1831). A practical guide to operations of the teeth. London, John Wilson. p. 129-132. A chapter describing dental mirrors made of glass or steel, with concavity to provide magnification. There is no illustration of the mirror.

Sofan, Eshrak, Sofan, Afrah, Palaia, Gaspare et al., (2017). Classification review of dental adhesive systems: from the IV generation to the universal type. Ann. Stomatol (Roma), 8(1): 1-17.

Solingen, Cornelis (1693). Hand-Griffe der Wund-Artzney (Procedures in wound-medicine). Franckfurt an der Oder : Verlegts Jeremias Schrey und Henrich Joh. Meyers Erben : Gedruckt bey Christoph Andreas Zeitlern. p.119. (using drills to remove rough edges from the cavity).

Sorrin, Sidney and Miller, Samuel Charles (1928). The practice of periodontia

Spencer, WG (1935). Celsus De Medicina (Vol 2). Book VI. 9. 5-10. I. Page 250-251. (This is a translation of Celsus’ work with alternating Latin/English pages).

The actual Latin and translated quote: “ Quod si dolor eximi eum cogit, et piperis semen cortice liberatum, et eodem modo baca hederae coniecta in [id] foramen dentem findit, isque per testas excidet. Et plani piscis, quam pastinacam nostri, tygona Gaeci vovant, aculeus torretur, deinde conteritur resinaque excipitur, quae denti circumdata hunc solvit.” Translated: But if pain compels its removal, a peppercorn without the tegument or an ivy berry without the tegument is inserted into the cavity of the tooth, which it splits, and the tooth falls out in bits. Also, the tail spine of the flat fish, which we call pastinaca, and the Greeks call trygon (sting ray), is roasted, pounded, and taken up in resin, and this, when applied around the tooth, loosens it.  (the sting ray contains quick lime or calcium oxide in the tail bone, which has a similar structure to the tooth with a pulp and dentin-like substance).

Spielman, AI. (2007). The Birth of the most Important 18th Century dental text: Pierre Fauchard’s Le Chirurgien Dentiste. J Dent Res. 86:922-926. doi: 10.1177/154405910708601004

Spielman, AI (2009). The Boy with the Golden Tooth: A 1593 Case Report of the First Molded Gold Crown. J. Dent. Res. Volume: 88 (1): 8-11

Spooner, Shearjashub (1836). Guide to sound teeth. p.116. (First time mix of 3 parts arsenic and 1 part acetate of morphine to devitalize a tooth).

S.S.White Dental Catalogue of Dental Materials Furniture and Instruments. (1867). p.215. (dental floss)

Stebbins EA. (1891). What value has argenti nitras as a therapeutic agent in dentistry? International Dental Journal, 12:661‐70.

Steenbock, P. (1903). Verfahren zur Herstellung einer durch Behandlung mit Phosphosäern und deren Salzen erhärtenden Masse. Kaiserliches Patent 174,558. (Paul Steenbock, patent for artificial dentin enamel, esthetic cement).

Steenbock, P. (1904). Improvement in and relating to the manufacture of a material designed for cement production. British Patent 15181.

Stern, Irvin g B, Everett, Frank G, Robicsek, Karl (1965). S Robicsek – A pioneer in the surgical treatment of periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 36:265-268. (Robicsek, the developer of the surgical technique later called gingivectomy).

Stevens, A.M. and Johnson, F.C. (1922). A new eruptive fever associated with stomatitis and ophthalmia. Report of two cases in children. Am. J Dis. Child. 24:526-531.

Stockerius, Johannes (1636). Praxis Aurea ad Corporis Humani, Cap. XIX De Dolore Dentium et Dentibus Perforatis, p. 130-131. (Amalgam in Stockerius)

Stockerius, Johannes and Dornkrellius, Tobias (1601). Empirica sive medicamenta varia, experientia diuturna comprobata et stabilita. Cap. XIX. De dolore dentium et dentibus perforatis. p. 52. (amalgam in Stockerius).

Strabo: The Geography of Strabo. The Library of History. Loeb Classical Library 1923, Volume II, Book III, Chapter 4.*.html#4.16.2

Strkalj, Goran (2013). Niels Stensen and the Discovery of the Parotid Duct. Int. J. Morphol., 31(4):1491-1497.

Sudhoff, Karl (1921). Geschichte Der Zahnheilkunde, 1st Ed. Leipzig. p. 24.

Sudhoff, Karl (1926). Geschichte Der Zahnheilkunde, 2d Ed. Leipzig.

Sudhoff, Karl (1926). Vom Alter des Gaumenobturators, Janus, 1924, 28, 451-54. Quotes: Renner, Franz, Ein Newwohlgegruendet nützliches und haylsames Handtbüch lein, etc. Nürnberg, Gabriel Heyn, 1557, pp. 86-87.

Suge T, Ishikowa K, Kawasaki A, et al. (1995). Effects of fluoride on the calcium phosphate precipitation method for dentinal tubule occlusion. J Dent Res. 74(4):1079-1085.

Tabak   LA. (2001).   A   revolution in biomedical assessment:  The development of salivary diagnostics. J Dent Educ. 65:1335–9.

Taft, J (1859). A practical treatise on operative dentistry. London, Trubner and Co. (p.253 – gold foil root canal filling technique; p.277 use gutta-percha in chloroform instead of gold. 

Taft, J. (1883). Practical treatise on operative dentistry. Philadelphia,  P. Blakiston  Son and Co., 4th Ed.

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p. 300-301. (Taft describes the method used by JE Cravens in 1873 of using lacto-phosphate of lime for pulp capping left in place for six weeks.); quoted in Taft, p.297- Allport – partial pulpectomy; p.323, hand instruments devised by Dr. Corydon Palmer for root canal enlarging and filling Fig. 94). p.307 removal of the pulp under local anesthesia using chloroform.

Taggart WH. (1907)a. A New and Accurate Method of Making Gold Inlays. Den Cosmos. 1907; 49:1117-1121.  (improved gold inlay from wax-up), US Patent 865823A

Taggart, WH. (1907)b. Apparatus for making molds for the casting of dental fillings and the like. July 12, 1907. US Patent US865823A

Takamine, J. (1901). Adrenalin, the active principle of the suprarenal glands, and its mode of preparation. American Journal of Pharmacy, 73: 523–31.

Talbot, E.S. (1884). Proceedings of the First District Dental Society, State of New York. Dental Cosmos, Vol 26: 411-413. (Richmond Crown presented)

Tammisalo, Erkki H. (1975). Professor Yrjö V. Paatero – The Pioneer of Panoramic Oral Tomography. Dento Maxillofacial Radiology 4(1):53-56.

The National Association of Dental Faculties (1893). The History of the National Association of Dental Faculties: (United States): with the constitution and codified by-laws. pp.38.

Thompson, RC. (1923). Assyrian medical texts. Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press; 1923. (From the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, 7c. BCE)

Thompson, R.C. (1924). Assyrian Medical Texts: I. Proc R Soc Med. 1924;17)Sect Hist Med) 1-34.  (belongs to the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, 7th c. BCE)

Thompson, R.C. (1926) Assyrian Medical Texts: II. Proc R Soc Med. 1926;19(Sect Hist Med):29-78. (Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, 7th C. BCE)

Toirac, Alphonse (1823). Dissertation sur les dents, considérées sous le rapport de la santé, de la physionomie, et de la prononciation. Paris, pp. 62. (First description of chronic periodontitis, called later pyorrhoea alveolaris).

Tomes, John (1841). On the construction and application of forceps for extracting teeth. London Medical Gazette, Vol II:424-430. (design of anatomical forceps for extraction).

Tomes, John (1859). A system of dental surgery, pp. 572 (Soft toothbrush, astringent, good oral hygiene, calculus removal to tx. periodontal inflammation; Tartar or salivary calculus. p.535-539. John Churchill, London. (removal of calculus and composition of salivary stone and calculus by Berzelius)..

Towers, Joseph (1767). The Life of Bishop Aylmer: In. British Biography, Vol III, R Goadby, London, p. 237. (Bishop of London extracted one of his teeth to show Queen Elizabeth I that the extraction was not painful).

Townsend, B.R. (1944). The Story of the Tooth-worm. Source: Bulletin of the History of Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 37-58

Toothbrush patents 1857-1957 (The US. Patent Office:

Tremble, Angus (2005). A Brief History of the Smile. Basic Books. p.288.

Truman, James (1865). (a). Discolored and necrosed teeth. Dent. Times. 2:69-72.  (First bleaching with chlorine.)

Truman, James (1869). (b). Bleaching teeth. 6:12-14.

Turfa, Jean MacIntosh, and Becker, Marshall J. (2019). A very distinctive smile: Etruscan dental appliances. In: Prosthesis in Antiquity, Draycott, Jane, Ed.  Routledge, London, and New York, p.49-70.

Underwood AS and Miller WT (1881). Investigation into the effects of organisms upon teeth and alveolar portions of the jaws. Transactions of the International Medical Congress, vol 3. 523-529. London. (Demonstration of the chemo-parasitic theory of caries 17 years before Willoughby Miller).

United States Congress (1849). Thirtieth Congress – Second Session . Report No 144. House of Representatives. William T. G. Morton – Sulfuric Ether. 146 p.

US Census Bureau -1880 – Table XXXIII.-The Number of Persons in the United States Engaged in Each  A Total Number of All Persons Occupied. p. 760. ( (12,314 dentists). (Number of dentists in 1880).

Vaughan, William (1600) Naturall and Artificial Directions for Health, derived from the best philosophers, as well moderne as auncient. R. Bradocke, London, pp. 70-76.

Vaughn, William (1602). Natural and Artificial Directions for Health (1602). p 57-63, 70-76.

Vesalius, Andreas (1543) (a).. De Humanis Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. Oporinus, Basel 1543. p. 55b, 57b (identifying the alveolar pocket). veluti alueoli et fossulae…ita sane dentes ipsis insertos = alveolar pockets… and in it teeth are firmly inserted.)

Vesalius, Andreas (1543) (b). De Humanis Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. p. 45, Fig 1 E. (Vesalius identified it as “media molaris dentis pars hic delineatur, sinum in dentibus = the middle of the molar delineates a sinus inside the tooth”) Basel.

Vigo, Giovanni di Rapallo (1560).  Practica, De Dolorem Dentium, 1560, Chapter VI, p. 532.  on dealing with pain quotes what Galen presumably stated: “Gal. inquit si medicamina dentiu pro eorum doloris sedatione non cotulerint , tunc ad ultimu remediu opus est trafire id est, ad eorum radicitus extirpatione. If everything else fails, open the tooth and remove the nerve”.

Victtori Leonello Benedicti Faventini (1550). Viri in Arte Medica Excellentissimi, Opera, page 46. (for drilling into the tooth and necrotize the pulp). Aliud ad idem, si dens dolens esser perforatus, impleatur foramen cum sequenti mixtura: Rx/ Theriacæ unc.s. pyrethri, nigellae ana drach.s. aquæ vitæ drach.i. misce, et impleatur foramen dentis. If case of pain, perforate the tooth and fill the opening with the following mixture: Theriac, a half ounce, chrysanthemum, fennel flower, each, 2 gr., nitric acid ½ a teaspoon, mix and place it into the opening of the tooth.

Another (recipe) for the same: if there is a toothache, perforate the tooth and fill the opening with the following mixture: Theriac a half ounce, chrysanthemum, fennel flower, each, 2 gr., nitric acid ½ a teaspoon, mix and place it into the opening of the tooth. Based on the composition, the nitric acid would have killed the pulp and removed the pain. This description is the first to indicate a form of root canal treatment.

Victtori, Leonello Benedicti Faventini (1557). De aegritudinibus infantium, p. 78. (The original Latin text states: Si dolor dentium nimis invaluerit, superponatur externe Opium, cum Vitello Ovi semicocti distemperatum. = semi-cooked egg yolk, opium for toothache).

Victtori, Leonello Benedicti Faventini (1557). De Eadem Tractione Appendicula – Georgium Kuffnerium. p.10 – Practica – On gingival swellings – apply an ointment made up of one ounce of “adipis gallinæ” onto the gingiva. Or: Chamomile oil and honey, each, one ounce, mix it well by shaking and place it on the wound. (Olei chamomælini, Mellis, ana unc. 1. Misce bene ad inuicem agitando, et lineatur locus læfus… oleo de camomilla sit sedatio doloris. (for gingival swelling)

Virchow, Hans, (1915). Unterkiefer von Ehringsdorf. Zeitschrift Ethnologie 47: 444-449.). and Virchow, H. (1920). Die menschlichen Skelettreste aus dem Kampfe’schen Bruch im Travertin von Ehringsdorf bei Weimar. Jena. (Periodontal disease 100.000 years ago).

von Haller, Albrecht (1751). Primae Linae Physiologiae in Usum Praelectionum Academicarum p.279-294.

Wadely, Greg and Hayden, Brian (2015). Pharmacological Influences on the Neolithic Transition. J. of Ethnobiology (35(3):566-584. DOI: 10.2993/etbi-35-03-566-584.1 (argues that beer-making contributed to the dawn of agriculture).

Weaver, Joel M (2019). The history of the specialty of dental anesthesiology. Anesth Prog 66:61–68 2019 j DOI 10.2344/anpr-66-02-12

Weinberger, Bernhard W. (1948). An Introduction to History of Dentistry. 2 Vol., St. Louis, MO, C.V. Mosby Co.   

Wescott A. (1870). Using Plaster of Paris for Taking Impressions of the Mouth – Its History and Importance,  12 (4): 169-181. (Dunning was the first to take a plaster of Paris impression in the winter of 1843-44, p.171 of article)

Wheeler, Herber L. (1904). Porcelain art in dentistry. Dental Cosmos 46:547-550. (Porcelain inlay used by Maynard in 1857).

Whiteside, Howard A. (1916). US Patent 1189184A. (small electric dental drill attached to a straight handpiece, filed in 1909, patented in 1916).

Williams, J.L. (1884). A Consideration of the merits and claims of artificial crown- and bridge-work. Dental Cosmos, Volume 26, Issue 1, January 1884, pp. 1-8. (The Richmond Crown).

Williams, J. Leon (1897). A contribution to the study of the pathology of enamel. Dental Cosmos. 39(4):269-301 and 39(5):353-374. (The presence of a plaque on tooth surface p.296)

Wilson, Margaret (2018). The evolution of the foot pedal powered dental engine – three dentists and an engineer. Dental Historian 63(1):33-38.

Witzel, Adolph (1879). Die antiseptische Behandlung der Pulpakrankheiten des Zahnes :Mit Beiträgen zur Lehre von den Neubildungen in der Pulpa. (The antiseptic treatment of the pulpal diseases of the teeth.)  (First, use creosote in the pulp to disinfect it before the root canal).

Wol, William 1966. A History of Personal Oral Hygiene – Customs, Methods and Instruments – Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Bull Hist Dent., Oct 1966, p 54-66.

Wolf, W. (1966). A history of personal hygiene customs, methods and instruments yesterday, today, tomorrow. Bull Hist Dent. 14: 54-63.

Wood, Alexander (1855). New Method of Treating Neuralgia by the direct application of Opiates to the Painful Points. Edinburgh Medical Surgical Journal. 82(203): 265-281. (description of the first hypodermic needle and syringe use in neuralgia cases).

Woodforde, John (1968) (a). The Strange Story of False Teeth. p. 27. Universe Books. New York City. (denture fitting with paint)

Woodforde, John (1968) (b). The Strange Story of False Teeth. p. 49. Universe Books. New York City. (Remove dentures for a meal)

Woodforde John (1968)(d). The Strange Story of False Teeth. Universe Books, New York City, p.43. (use of lemon juice, alum, and salt for tooth whitening).

Woofendale, Robert (1783). Observations on the Teeth. p. 153 (toothbrush).

Xie, H, Dubey, N, Shim, W, Ramachandra, CJA, Min, KS, Cao, T, Rosa, V. 2018. Functional odontoblastic-like cells derived from human iPSCs. J Dent Res. 97(1):77–83.

Yelick, Pamela C. and Sharpe, Paul T (2019). Tooth Bioengineering and Regenerative Dentistry. J Dent Res. 98(11):1173-1182. DOI:10.1177/0022034519861903 (The history of tooth regeneration).

Young, James (1929). Malpighi’s “De Pulmonibus”. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 23(1):1-11. ( – for the description of the capillaries.

Yuan, H., Ma, Q., Ye, L., & Piao, G. (2016). The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)21(5), 559.

Zene Artzney (1530). Die gut und gesundt zubehalten, Und alle gebrechen. First edition. 

Zene Artzney (1541). (Medicine for the Teeth). Christoff Egenolff, 5th ed. Frankfurt am Main, p.48.

Zene Artzney (1981). The Classics of Dentistry Library; Leslie B. Adam Publisher.

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